Essay 1: What is Management?
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the role and function of management in society and the workforce and to look into how it is implemented. Three main questions will be discussed, outlining, ”What is management? aWhat do managers do? And what skills do managers need?” We will define management as a profession, look into what managers undertake and deliver in their daily output of work, different levels of management, and what skills managers need in order to produce the desired beneficial outcome for their organization.
What is Management?
To begin with lets look at management through the last 30 years. In 1980 management was defined by Dale S. Beach, The management of people at work (1980, p5), as ‘The process of utilizing material and human resources to accomplish designated objectives’. Current day, management is defined by Robbins (2011, p7) as ‘The process of getting things done, effectively and efficiently, with and through other people’. It would appear that over the last 30 years that the basis of what management is and its definition hasn’t changed much, apart from the introduction of efficiency and effectiveness, which are quantifiably measureable. It can then be said that modern, current day management is the use of resources efficiently and effectively and that progress in the workplace can be constantly reviewed, measured and improved due to this. Management can then be defined as the continual process of measuring work output based on resource input and the effectiveness of said output on overall goals.
What do Managers do?
If management is doing things effectively and efficiently, then what does the manager actually do to achieve this? It has been widely accepted that Henri Fayol’s , condensed from five to four, management functions of planning, organizing, leading (directing and coordinating) and controlling, are what all managers use to direct and oversee others work (Robbins, 2011, p8-9, Dessler, 2001, p3). It has also been accepted that Henry Mintzberg’s model of managerial roles (see figure 1) is also correct. It could be said that the idea of having both of these methods is both ineffective and inefficient as they clash on how a manager should go about his/her job, but Mintzberg’s model is a more in depth version of Fayol’s model, that takes into consideration the wide variety of daily activities a manager must perform, not just a basic input/output/review scheme. A Study from the University of Nebraska by Fred Luthans challenges both Fayol’s and Mitzberg’s models and puts forward a new concept. This concept being that there are 4 main roles a manager must undertake, those being Communication, Traditional management, human resource management and networking (Luthans, 1988). Looking at all three of these models we can depict some similarities; that being that all models include the basic premise of planning, organizing and implementing, leading and motivating subordinates and then...