Long term condition (LTC) is a health problem that cannot be cured, at present, but can be managed by medication or therapies’ (Snodden., 2010: p1). There are more than 15 million people in England that are suffering from long term conditions (Department of Health., 2013). Long-term conditions are more common in older people. The percentages of people of over 60 having a LTC is 58 per cent compared to under that is 14 per cent (Department of Health, 2012). LTC is also more predominant in more deprived groups, such as the poorest social class as it has 60 per cent higher prevalence than of those in the richest social class. (Department of Health, 2012).
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Anxiety and depression are both common results of CP, patients learn to integrate their illness into their lives and manage the disappointment that there is, as yet, no cure (Donaghy et al., 2008).
Impact of Long Term Condition and Management Approaches
The biopsychosocial model by Banks and Mackrodt (2005) suggests that using this model (see figure 1.1) can provide CP sufferers an important multidimensional perspective through physical, social and psychological states.
Julie’s physical complaints comprises of having a knee replacement previously, weak back and constant lower back pain. She is currently living with her son whom has a learning disability, age 34 and works together as team. Julie joined the Expert Patient Support Group (EPSG), when she read a document in the doctor’s surgery. Through this support group, she now have a very positive outlook in life in general. She currently socially active via available courses for her chronic LBP, spiritual aspects such as church and community café led by her. Effectiveness of Julie’s coping intervention at present will be discussed on the next chapter.
Effectiveness of Julie’s Current Coping Strategies
In order to help in opposing negative thoughts, beliefs, feelings and behaviour of having CP, each individuals adopts to different coping styles. These styles can vary such as physical activity, pacing skills, distraction techniques and social support. There are several coping strategies that Julie is undertaking at present. In terms of self-management, Richard and Shea (2011) depicts self-management as the ability of an individual in combination with the family, community and the multidisciplinary team’ working hand-in-hand. Therefore, Julie may require to liaise with other people in order to manage her symptoms, treatment, lifestyle changes, and psychological, cultural and spiritual consequences of her chronic LBP. (Richard and Shea., 2011; p261).
Cognitive Coping Styles
Julie have a positive outlook although she has chronic pain. She joined EPSG and is currently goes to church. Furthermore, she is socially active with her church members by leading a fellowship group and the community café. This is an effective coping strategy for Julie as it involves the individual to concentrate her thoughts and feelings on other things than of the pain (Hughes., 2008; Linton and Shaw., 2011). This type of coping style is extensively acknowledged as a cognitive treatment strategy (Banks and Mackrodt., 2005; Lubkin and Larsen., 2006; Winterowd et al., 2003; Smeltzer et al., 2010).
A literature by Baetz and Bowen (2008), shows CP sufferers that are religious and spiritual were more likely to have better psychological well-being and use of positive coping strategies. Julie may have accepted her chronic condition in this case. Recognition and acceptance of certain conditions was associated with better psychological well-being in chronic pain (Van Damme et al., 2006). Acceptance is then reinforced by spiritual...