This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Mannitol Essay

1575 words - 7 pages

Mannitol can be truly useful in the clinical setting as a diagnostic agent, osmotic diuretic and urinary irrigant. Mannitol’s chemical class is hexahydroxy alcohol and it is a pregnancy category B drug. Mannitol is a six-carbon sugar and is known by the generic name of mannitol or Osmitrol, which is the most common brand name. Mannitol is usually available in 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% injection form. Mannitol is considered a diuretic which promotes urine production. It is also helpful in preventing the kidney from shutting down. It increases osmotic pressure of the glomerular filtrate, inhibiting reabsorption of water and electrolytes and creates an osmotic gradient in the glomerular filtrate and blood (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2008, p.183).
Mannitol has its major effect in the proximal tubule and the descending limb of the loop of Henle. Water concentration is reabsorbed down the tubule, therefore the concentration of mannitol increases. “The concentration of tubular sodium is thereby reduced, creating a gradient for black-flux of reabsorbed sodium into the tubule, and a natriuresis (albeit of lower magnitude) accompanies the diuresis” (Ronco, Bellomo & Kellum, 2009, p. 552). Mannitol produces an excess of diuresis in natriuresis, and if there is an excessive water loss, there is a risk of hypernatremia and hyperkalemia. Mannitol is primarily used as prevention and treatment of the oliguric phase of renal failure. It also, reduces ICP (intracranial pressure) and IOP (intraocular pressure) and is often used as a treatment for cerebral edema. Mannitol encourages urinary voiding of toxic substances for example salicylates, bromides and lithium. It is also used as a diagnostic tool in measuring of GFR (glomerular filtration rate).
According to Merriam-Webster, pharmacokinetics is “the characteristic interaction of a drug and the body in terms of its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion”. The pharmacokinetics of mannitol is the following: I.V. route, there is a 30-60 min onset with a one hour peak and duration of six to eight hours and through irrigant route, there is a rapid onset with a rapid peak and a short duration (Karch, 2014, p.721). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (2008) describe the absorption to be administered though I.V. which will result in a rapid distribution that remains in the cell; it is vaguely metabolized and effortlessly filtered by the glomeruli. It is crucial to point that mannitol crosses the placenta and may enter into the breast milk in female patients. Mannitol is usually excreted primarily in urine.
As stated by Ronco, C., Bellomo, R., & Kellum, J. A. (2009), osmotic diuretics like mannitol are distributed rapidly withdrawing water from the intracellular space. As a result, headache, vomiting, and nausea are the most common side effects in patients. If mannitol is used in excess without appropriate water intake it can result in critical dehydration. As mannitol withdraws water from the...

Find Another Essay On Mannitol

Intracellular Localization of Respiration and Glycolysis in Sarcophaga bullata

1678 words - 7 pages Intracellular Localization of Glycolysis and Respiration investigates which part of the Sarcophaga bullata cells carries out glycolysis and respiration. Sacrophaga ba. mitochondria and cytoplasm from thoraces cell were used to form a homogenate, supernatant, and pellet. Mannitol, buffer mix, glucose, succinate, homogenate, supernatant, and pellet were added to seven different test tubes to create different solutions. The test tubes were then

Unknown Lab Report

958 words - 4 pages followed as stated in the lab manual (1). Since the sample contained two unidentified bacteria, the first step was to isolate each bacterium using streak plate technique. Tryptic Soy Agar (TSA) plate, and differential media such as mannitol salt and Eosin methylene blue (EMB) were used for isolation streak technique. This step is imperative because the bacteria need to be separated and isolated before they can be identified. Moreover, gram staining was

Identifying Two Unknown Species of Bacteria

1353 words - 5 pages citrate it produces carbon dioxide that reacts with sodium and water, also found in the medium, to produce sodium carbonate. Sodium carbonate elevates the pH causing a color change from green to blue (a positive result). The second bacterium was gram positive. There are three tests that are used to identify gram positive bacteria. The three tests are hemolyses on blood agar, Mannitol fermentation on mannitol salt agar, and the coagulase test

Common Microorganisms

983 words - 4 pages . Experiment number three explored the normal human flora existing on skin and in nasal cavities, and two types of agar were used, including TSA and Mannitol Salt Agar, which contains manitol sugar, phenol red, and 7.5% NaCl. Mannitol Salt Agar tests for the presence of staphylococci bacteria that can survive in the salt that inhibits the growth of most other bacteria. Some forms of staph bacteria ferment mannitol and produce a yellow color around the

Staphylococcus studies

1438 words - 6 pages In laboratory we are doing a study on Staphylococcal carriers and whether or not the carry Staphylococcus aureus. Staphylococcus aureus is a bacteria that is a normal element of the skin and inside the nose. Some people can carry Staphylococcus and not be infected by it. The two major species of Staphylococcus are Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermis, the difference is distinguished between the fermentation of mannitol salt agar

Biochemical Unknown

1090 words - 4 pages narrow down the different types of test to complete. The coagulase was one of the first tests that I did to differentiate the bacteria, this organism tested negative for coagulase, and it does not have the coagulase enzyme. This left was a result for all of the gram positive bacteria except for the Staphylococcus Aureus, which is coagulase positive. The other testing I did was the growth on the Mannitol Salt Agar plate (MSA) I was surprised to see

Provesicular Dry Powder Formulations for Pulmonary Delivery of Anti-tubercular Drugs

925 words - 4 pages , capreomycin, ethionamide, clarithromycin. Phospholipids- Phospholipon 90H (Hydrogenated soyphosphatidyl-choline, HSPC), Non-ionic surfactants- Span 20, 40, 60 and 80, Structural lipid- Cholesterol, Charge inducers- dicetyl phosphate (negative charge inducer), stearyl amine and stearic acid (positive inducers), carriers- Lactose, Respitose, Sorbitol, Mannitol, Trehalose, anti-adherent- L-Leucine. Methods Preparation of provesicular dry powders for

Biochemical Reactions and Enzyme Kinetics

1919 words - 8 pages Methods (The following information was obtained from the BIO 220 Lab Manual) (Biology 6 Laboratory Manual, ECSU, 2014) Isolation of Mitochondrial Fraction Twenty grams of the surface of fresh Brassica oleracea (cauliflower) was extracted and placed in a chilled mortar with 40 ml of ice-cold mannitol grinding buffer (300 mM mannitol; 6 mM KH2PO4; 14 mM K2HPO4; pH 7.2) and ground. The suspension was filtered through 4 layers of cheesecloth into a

Microbiological testing for unknown (salmonella sp.)

567 words - 2 pages along the stab line and on top of the medium, but the organism did not liquefy the gel. Furthermore, the following tests were performed:· PR Glucose: had residue at bottom of slant, broth turned yellow and < 10 % gas in the Durham tube.· Lactose: little reside observed in tube no gas in Durham tube.· Mannitol: Turned yellow >10% gas seen in Durham tube· Nitrate broth: Had become hazy no gas seen in Durham tube

Esherichia coli

1401 words - 6 pages temperatures and negative if it was solid at cold temperatures. A test was also performed to determine if the unknown expressed urease to catabolize urea. The phenol red starts red and a color change to bright pink indicates the production of ammonia from the hydrolysis of urea. The organism is unable to digest gelatin and unable to catabolize urea. Colonies that ferment mannitol cause the medium to turn yellow from red. The organism is unable to

Development of ketoprofen loaded proliposomal powders for improved gastric absorption and gastric tolerance: in vitro and in situ evaluation

1639 words - 7 pages nature which might be responsible for cytoprotective action against oxidative stress by reactive oxygen species during ulceration. Apart from antioxidant action of HSPC, liposomes formed upon hydration of proliposomes shows encapsulation of drug in the bilayer lamellae followed by reduced interaction of drug with the mucus layer in stomach (43,44). The carrier used to adsorb lipids i.e. pearlitol SD 200 (sparay dried mannitol) also reported to be

Similar Essays

Development Of Ketoprofen Loaded Proliposomal Powders For Improved Gastric Absorption And Gastric Tolerance: In Vitro And In Situ Evaluation

914 words - 4 pages -Keuls (compare all pairs). The differences were considered to be significant at P < 0.05. Results and discussion Preparation of ketoprofen proliposomes and selection of suitable carrier Ketoprofen loaded proliposomes were successfully prepared at 1: 1 molar ratio of cholesterol and HSPC (20,31) with different carriers such as mannitol, pearlitol SD 200 (spray dried mannitol), pearlitol SD 300 (directly compressible mannitol), compressol

Microbiology Lab Report On Escherichia Coli And Staphylococcus Aureus

825 words - 3 pages growth.RESULTSFour different agar types were used in this experiment. The first (Nutrient) allowed for growth of both E. coli and S. aureus. The second agar used (MKL) inhibited the growth of S. aureus but allowed the growth of E. coli. The third (ASH) yielded growth of both bacterial species. The fourth (Mannitol) was found to inhibit growth of E. coli (Table 1).Table 1. Indication of growth within the four types of agar. G = growth, NG = no growth.E

Development Of Ketoprofen Loaded Proliposomal Powders For Improved Gastric Absorption And Gastric Tolerance: In Vitro And In Situ Evaluation

625 words - 3 pages Ketoprofen was obtained as ex gratis from Ciron Drugs & Pharmaceuticals Pvt. Ltd, Mumbai, India. Phospholipon 90H (Hydrogenated soyphosphatidylcholine, HSPC) sample was obtained as a generous gift sample from Lipoid, Germany. Mannitol, compressol, erythritol, pearlitol SD 200 (Spray dried mannitol), pearlitol DC 300 (Directly compressible mannitol) and directly compressible lactose 22 were generously provided as gift samples by Dr. Reddy’s

Microbiology Essay

675 words - 3 pages Aureus.Materials- Organisms used- Escherichia Coli, Micrococcus Luteus, Salmonella thyphimurium, and lastly Staphylococcus Aureus. 4 Phenol-Red Mannitol 4 Phenol-Red Sucrose 4 Phenol-Red Dextrose Busen burner Inoculation loop Procedure-(The material and methods used for this lab can be found in Cappuccino, J.G., N. Sherman.2014. Microbiology: a laboratory manual. 10th Ed. Pearson Education, inc.) The organisms used in this lab were