Production Of Materials Essay

4913 words - 20 pages

9.2 - Production of Materials1. Fossil fuels provide both energy and raw materials such as ethylene, for the production of other substances1.1.construct word and balanced formulae equations of chemical reactions as they are encountered1.2.identify the industrial source of ethylene from the cracking of some of the fractions from the refining of petroleumSteam (thermal) cracking:C2H6 C2H4 + H2∆H = +138kJ/moleC C C C + H2C3H8 C2H4 + CH4∆H = +87kJ/moleC C C C C + CEthane and propane are converted into ethene by heating them in a furnace with steam at a temperature of around 700-900ºC. The larger molecules are converted into the small molecules that are being formed. Energy is absorbed when breaking bonds and energy is released when bonds are formed.C16H34 C3H6 + C2H4 + C11H24With steam cracking, it is difficult to control the size of monomers.Catalytic cracking:Decane octane + etheneC10H22 C8H18 + C2H4With catalytic cracking, they are able to control the size of monomers. It is also possible to carry out the reaction at a much lower temperature. The catalyst is a heterogeneous catalyst. The catalyst and the reactant are not in the same phase (solid, liquid or gas). For example, zeolite - a crystalline substance consisting of aluminium, silicon and oxygen. It is a 3-D structure consisting of many channels or pores into which the long chain molecules are absorbed and broken into smaller chain molecules.1.3.identify that ethylene, because of the high reactivity of its double bond, is readily transformed into many useful productsAlkanes are very un-reactive. They are not as reactive as the alkenes. Alkanes are saturate hydrocarbons. They undergo substitution reactions.CH4 + Cl2 chloromethane + hydrogen chlorideC + Cl2 C + HClChloromethane + Cl2 dichloromethane + hydrogen chlorideC + Cl2 C + HCldichloromethane + Cl2 trichloromethane + hydrogen chlorideC + Cl2 C + HCltrichloromethane + Cl2 tetrachloromethane + hydrogen chlorideC + Cl2 C + HClAlkenes undergo addition reactions.C2H4 + Br2 1, 2-dibromomethaneC C + Br2 C CC3H6 + Br2 1, 2-dibromopropaneC C C + Br2 C C CThe presence of double bonds in alkenes makes it possible to transform alkenes easily into other useful products.Addition of hydrogen to ethene (hydrogenation): You can use either nickel or platinum as the catalyst.C C + H2 C CAddition of halogens to ethene:C C + Cl2 C CTesting for un-saturation: Alkene and bromine water gets decolourised; and in alkane and bromine water, there is no change in darkness, unless it is exposed to UV light. In this case, it would decolourise slowly.C C + Br2 C CC C +Br2/HOH C C + HBr1-bromo-2-hydroxyethaneC2H4 + HCl C2H5ClC2H4 + H2 C C2H5OH} hydration of etheneC2H 4 CH2OH - CH2OHC C many polymers1, 2-ethanediol is used as "antifreeze" in the cooling systems in cars as it has a lower freezing point and higher boiling point than water and does not cause corrosion. It is also used in the manufacture of magnetic tape, photographic film and synthetic...

Find Another Essay On Production of Materials

Percast Material Requirements System Essay

1140 words - 5 pages that the operations manager know the following: a) Master Production Schedule - what is to be made and when, b) Specifications or bill of material - materials and parts required to make the product, c) Inventory availability - what is in stock, d) Purchase orders outstanding - what is on order, e) Lead times - how long it takes to get various components. The following article is according to Robert Jacobs, author of the book Operations and

Different types of production method Essay

832 words - 3 pages product (although some "variety" can be accomplished through applying different finishes, decorations etc at the end of the production line).(3) Materials used in production must be to specification and delivered on timeSince the flow production line is working continuously, it is not a good idea to use materials that vary in style, form or quality. Similarly, if the required materials are not available, then the whole production line will come

Sunair Boat Builders, INC

1509 words - 6 pages workers placed on the job, and the quality of the materials with which they work. Overhead variances result both from actual spending and from differences between actual and normal levels of production.Case ContextBill Schmidt, Sun Air's accountant, expressed his disappointment about deviations from the production volume and costs from the set of standards in the molding department. He noticed the apparent variances of the actual costs of

The use of recled materials

1113 words - 4 pages of buildings has appeared as an efficient manner (Meyer, 2009). If the generated waste cannot be reused, recycling strategy should be considered (Yuan, 2011). Recycling is a useful plan to reduce the waste production and provide three more benefits: (a) minimize the use of raw materials; (b) decrease the demand for energy and transport costs and (c) recycle and reuse the waste that would otherwise be destined to landfills (Tam & Tam, 2006

Use of recycled materials

1113 words - 4 pages of buildings has appeared as an efficient manner (Meyer, 2009). If the generated waste cannot be reused, recycling strategy should be considered (Yuan, 2011). Recycling is a useful plan to reduce the waste production and provide three more benefits: (a) minimize the use of raw materials; (b) decrease the demand for energy and transport costs and (c) recycle and reuse the waste that would otherwise be destined to landfills (Tam & Tam, 2006

Jaguar Motors

783 words - 4 pages introduced the Toyota’s modified version as lean production process. This was one of the most revolutionized processes at that time and even today. It allowed manufacturers to cut down time and cost; additionally, it increases the productivity and quality of the product. Moreover, this process is also reflecting Just in time method. As it allows suppliers to supply materials at the correct time with the correct amount; which will decrease waste

saflkopasf

1032 words - 4 pages that management feels will benefit the enterprise. Valuation class Identifies the general ledger accounts associated with the material. The general ledger accounts are used to maintain the value of the inventory in stock and are updated as materials are purchased, sold, or used in production. Valuation currency The currency that the materials will be priced in, such as U.S. dollars or euros. Vendor master data Include the data needed to conduct business with a vendor and to execute transactions related to the purchasing process. BAI3170 2 BAI3170 3

sdkopkopbvk

1032 words - 4 pages that management feels will benefit the enterprise. Valuation class Identifies the general ledger accounts associated with the material. The general ledger accounts are used to maintain the value of the inventory in stock and are updated as materials are purchased, sold, or used in production. Valuation currency The currency that the materials will be priced in, such as U.S. dollars or euros. Vendor master data Include the data needed to conduct business with a vendor and to execute transactions related to the purchasing process. BAI3170 2 BAI3170 3

Analysis on Fredrick Engel´s Theoretical Abti- Duhring

848 words - 4 pages organized, although in a society we have an anarchy of production. With the factory of production, having control in the labour work field, allows supervision and knowledge to ensure everything is done accordingly, which provides less damaged items and wasteful uses of materials. On the contrary, within society, with production for example, chaos and mistakes and occur unexpectedly which results in the damage of materials and wasteful production

Preventing Crosscontamination in Pharmaceutical Production

1951 words - 8 pages quality of the finishing product, rejecting of raw material or end product and returned materials. Due to the word limitation of this assignment exploring each are of the above will be brief. Discussion 1-Prevention of cross contamination Cross contamination in pharmaceutical production should be prevented at all the stages of production. It is defined as: “The process by which foreign chemical, microbial, or physical substances are

ATMI and High Productivity Development

590 words - 2 pages ATMI and High Productivity Development High Productivity Development capabilities—ATMI’s most important new product initiative—could have a profound effect on the future profitability of the semiconductor industry. New Materials, New Processes…New Problems Improved chip performance drives semiconductor industry growth, and new materials enable enhanced chip performance. Our analysis shows approximately 60 new materials must be developed—and

Similar Essays

First And Second Generation Biomass Materials For Production Of Biofuels

1167 words - 5 pages into three different categories namely: first generation (Sucrose-containing feedstocks and starchy materials), second generation (Lignocellulosic biomass), and the third generation (Algal biomass). These classifications depend on the raw material, known as feedstock, and conversion technology that is being implemented. Three different types of biofuels currently play a major role at the global level, all belonging to the so-called ‘‘first

Year 12 Chemistry: Production Of Materials. Ethanol Research Task

1697 words - 7 pages Year 12 Chemistry Research Task9.2 - Production of MaterialsDescribe the dehydration of ethanol to ethylene and identify the need for a catalyst in this process and the catalyst used.A dehydration reaction is a reaction in which a molecule of water is removed from a compound. The molecule of water is released as one product.A hydrogen atom and OH group are removed from adjacent carbon atoms to form the water molecule. Each carbon atom has an

Analysis Of Production System Process

891 words - 4 pages materials, labour, rent and energy costs. Quality control: this involves the checks for quality that take place at all stages. Production methods Different scales of textiles production call for different production methods. One-off production In one-off production a single product is designed and made to a client's specification. Labour and material costs are high, and a high level of design and manufacturing skills are needed. An example

The Factors Of Production Essay

1102 words - 5 pages . Most often this means immediate natural resources, like oil or the property on which the production facility is located. This can also include the water or ocean that is close to the facility. The factor of production called land most often comprises the natural and raw materials which are used in production and are at the disposal of the production facility.(2) Labor The "labor" factor of production is also often called the Labor force, and this