Manushi Buddha Scenes Essay

1884 words - 8 pages

From the thirty scenes with stūpas in them, three thematic categories have emerged from their content. The first category is clearly distinguishable based on the number of scenes and repetition. Table 2.5 from the second chapter outlines where and how many times the Mānushi Buddha scenes occur. However, to reiterate, a proper Mānushi Buddha (Image 4.3) scene must contain seven elements, a combination of trees and stūpas. The Mānushi Buddhas are the earthly Buddhas, six of which are the immediate predecessors to Gautama. The scenes may consist of alternating elements, such as tree, stūpa, tree, etc., or of exclusively all trees. All of the Mānushi Buddha scenes at Sāñcī with stūpas are on the outer face of the top architraves of each of the four toraṇas. In short, there are six Mānushi Buddha scenes containing sixteen stūpas in those scenes.

Image 4.3: South gateway Mānushi Buddha scene with trees, people, and mythological creatures
The next thematic type that is identifiable is the parinirvāṇa (Image 4.4). While there are no absolutely clear indicators of a parinirvāṇa scene, other than the idea that a stūpa represents a reliquary which may enshrine relics or ashes of the Buddha, we may deduce parinirvāṇa scenes based on context. In several locations along the gateways there is a consistent pattern of major well-known events from the Buddha’s biography, such as the Enlightenment, First Sermon, or Birth. Continuing in this pattern, for instance, on the outside face of the south gateway, a stūpa appears on the die between the middle and lower architraves on the west side. On the direct opposite die is a birth scene. And on the die above that, between the middle and top architraves, is a Bodhi Tree symbolizing the enlightenment of Gautama. Directly below the said stūpa, below the false capital, is a dharmacakra on a pillar, symbolizing the First Sermon at Sarnath. It seems likely, then, that this stūpa has something to do with the parinirvāṇa. Using contextual criteria, I have identified at least three such stūpas which are representing the parinirvāṇa at Kuśinagara
Image 4.4: Parinirvāṇa scene from the south gateway
The last thematic type consists of legendary or historical scenes from Buddhist literature. These scenes typically take place after the parinirvāṇa of the Buddha and are related to the dissemination of Buddhism or important turning points in Buddhist history. The first and most important of these scenes is the previously described Rāmagrāma scene. On the middle architrave, outside face of the south toraṇa, it seems to be the character of Aśoka who is approaching the Rāmagrāma stūpa (Image 4.5) with the intention of opening it to obtain its relics for the sake of splitting them up to create more stūpas. Of course, as aforementioned in chapter 2, nāgas and nāginīs guarded and worshipped the stūpa and prevented Aśoka’s intended actions.

Image 4.5: A legend scene from the south gateway


Find Another Essay On Manushi Buddha Scenes

Psychological Egoism Theory Essay

2240 words - 9 pages The theory of psychological egoism is indeed plausible. The meaning of plausible in the context of this paper refers to the validity or the conceivability of the theory in question, to explain the nature and motivation of human behavior (Hinman, 2007). Human actions are motivated by the satisfaction obtained after completing a task that they are involved in. For example, Mother Teresa was satisfied by her benevolent actions and

How Celtic Folkore has Influenced My Family

1587 words - 6 pages Every family has a unique background that influences the way they live and interact with other people. My parents, who emigrated from Ireland to the States with my three brothers in 1989, brought over their own Celtic folklore and traditions that have helped shaped the way our family operates and lives. One aspect of folklore that has helped shape my family dynamic is the Celtic cross—both its background and what role it has played in our lives

Julia Margaret Cameron

1406 words - 6 pages photography and she was drawn to setting the stage of her subjects to reenact scenes from the Bible and Tennyson's idylls of the King which were a series of poems based on the legends of King Arthur. She would set the scenes up as photographed costume dramas and as she experimented with portraiture she did away with the staginess and implemented chiarascuro, which is an Italian term which literally means "light-dark". In painting, the manipulation of

Evaluation of School Improvement

1403 words - 6 pages The evaluation process should be progressive to incorporate overall planning, implement changes, which contribute to success. In order to focus on school climate and norms, the evaluation design must include the students, instructions, and outcomes to improve communication and building-level concerns to be address in this response. School Climate and Social Norms The school principal, other staff leaders, and personnel set the tone and the

Case Study: The Benefits of Animal Testing

1757 words - 7 pages Nine year old Amy has already had a rough start in life. She was born with an abnormal heart that hinders her everyday activities. Amy is unable to keep up with kids her own age because she often tires out easily. As a consequence, she has very little friends and is often alone. Amy is forced to take different medications everyday just to survive. Amy’s life consists of medicine, doctors, and constant hospital visits. However, Amy is due for a

Myth and Magic: Realism in "One Hundred Years of Solitude"

1531 words - 6 pages “He enjoyed his grandmother's unique way of telling stories. No matter how fantastic or improbable her statements, she always delivered them as if they were the irrefutable truth” (Wikipedia, 2011). Experiences are particular instances of one personally encountering or undergoing something and in these moments of time life changes for the best or the worst and memories are formed. These recollections such as riding your first bicycle, going to

Adiponectin: a Novel Indicator of Malnutrition and Inflammation in Hemodialysis Patients

2384 words - 10 pages Objective Protein-Energy malnutrition (PEM) and inflammation are common and overlapping conditions in hemodialysis patients which are associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Adiponectin is an adipocytokine which is exclusively produced by adipose tissue. Few studies in hemodialysis patients have demonstrated that serum levels of adiponectin were significantly higher in malnourished patients compared to well-nourished ones. The

The Congo Free State: A Legacy of Apathy, Exploitation and Brutality

2298 words - 9 pages Between 1885 and 1908, Belgium’s Leopold II ruled Congo, a region in central Africa, as his personal colony, exploiting the resources and inhabitants for his own gain. Leopold allowed and encouraged Europeans and other Westerners to enter Congo and set up companies whose primary purpose was to gather rubber, which was abundant but difficult to get to in the Congo, using the Congolese as the laborers for the Europeans. Rubber gathering in Congo

Selective Exposition in The Lottery, by Shirley Jackson

1073 words - 4 pages Usually when someone hears the word “lottery” the first thing that comes to mind is a large sum of cash that people compete against highly impractical odds to win. Shirley Jackson’s story The Lottery might imply a similar conception based on the title alone, but the story is filled with unknowns never revealing exactly when and where the story takes place, or why the lottery exists; even what the lottery is isn’t revealed until the very end. Yet


1857 words - 7 pages INTRODUCTION I remember when I was a young child; I would always be scared whenever there was a severe storm outside that included thunder and lightning. This was especially true in the hours of darkness, when you could really see the lightning. As I grew older this so-called fear of lightning turned into a fascination for this weather phenomena. One of my most vivid memories of lightning as a young man was when I was flying to Florida, the

Maryland's Ecology and Environment

1130 words - 5 pages Maryland is the 42nd largest state, making it one of the smaller states in America. It is located in the South Atlantic region on the United States eastern seaboard. Prince George's is one of twenty four counties in Maryland. It is also the geographic center of the state. Maryland has a varied climate. The state is home to a variety of different ecosystems. This is also true of Maryland’s environment, which has the Atlantic Ocean on

Similar Essays

When The Bubble Burst Essay

1539 words - 6 pages By the time I arrived state side from my second tour in the Middle East the housing bubble had already burst. I noticed a drastic change in the way that many of my friends and family were living. Several of my friends that worked in real estate had sold their boats and seconds houses. My own stock portfolio had lost a third of its value. My sister and her husband had defaulted on their home mortgage leaving them scrambling for a place to live. I

Phase Diagram Essay

4456 words - 18 pages Introduction: Chemical equilibrium is a crucial topic in Chemistry. To represent and model equilibrium, the thermodynamic concept of Free energy is usually used. For a multi-component system the Gibbs free energy is a function of Pressure, Temperature and quantity (mass, moles) of each component. If one of these parameters is changed, a state change to a more energetically favorable state will occur. This state has the lowest free energy

Revolutionary Work Of Art Essay

1890 words - 8 pages different color scheme of each scene in the movie. The most memorable part of film to me was in the hotel scene, where dream-thieves had to fight in zero-gravity as the walls twist and tumble around them. That was exceptionally brilliant; the movie overall had elevated art in modern times and defied gravity within each scenes. Also, the movie had different interpretations as I was viewing. The confusing nature of the movie caused heat-able debates

Enlightenment Thought In New Zealand Schools

1594 words - 6 pages In this essay I will be looking at how the political and intellectual ideas of the enlightenment have shaped New Zealand Education. I will also be discussing the perennial tension of local control versus central control of education, and how this has been affected by the political and intellectual ideas of the enlightenment. The enlightenment was an intellectual movement, which beginnings of were marked by the Glorious Revolution in Britain