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Maoist Theory And Agrarian Socialism Essay

1787 words - 8 pages

The components of Maoist theory up until 1949 developed from Mao Zedong’s sinification of Marxism and procured both positive and negative impacts on the localised Chinese populations living under Communist rule and the relationship with the Comintern. A fundamental principle of Maoism is peasant revolt and following the mass line which emphasises and embodies the perspective of the peasantry. The development of guerrilla tactics and precise military organisation were significantly important for implementing Mao’s policies. Mao instituted three specific reforms, namely political, and social and economic, in the development of Maoism. Under these principles citizens were included in the ...view middle of the document...

Mao’s ‘Report on an Investigation of the Hunan Peasant Movement’ demonstrates in a practical sense the peasantry movement and organisation. Within this, Mao outlines his assessments of the peasants, claiming that “several hundred million peasants will rise like a tornado…so extraordinarily swift and violent that no power…will be able to supress it” . The targets were the “local bullies and bad gentry and the lawless landlords” and additionally, those who resist it will “perish” . Mao also noted the nature of such a revolution cannot be “so refined, so clam and gentle, or so mild, kind, courteous” as inviting people to dinner for example, indicating his violent manner. A positive impact upon the women rose however, with the “opportunity…for them to lift up their heads” allowing them to increasingly falter the “authority of the husband” each day. The ‘mass line’ is exemplified best during the Yanan period, where the phrase "from the masses, to the masses" was coined. With proper mobilisation and training, the peasants could be transformed into an extremely capable force. These developments in Maoism provided the peasants with purpose and prepositioned a very positive relationship with their Communist leaders, however led to a split with their Moscow counterparts.

Essential to Maoism and in opposition to the Comintern, is guerrilla warfare tactics of which included a structured army organisation. This developed due to consecutive unsuccessful conflicts. Mao Zedong characterised his guerrilla warfare tactics as "when the enemy advances we retreat to avoid him, when the enemy stops we harass him, when the enemy is tired we attack him, and when the enemy retreats we chase after him" . The great intellectualism invested in these strategies was accompanied with exceptional organisation of the Red Army, to ensure the strategies would be delivered effectively. Thinking long term, Mao knew he needed strong forces and the Red Army he established in the Jiangxi province provided the foundation for eventual Communist success. Mao achieved this through democracy, political education and the promotion of the people’s livelihood. Troops were offered humane conditions and protection, with a complete education, safety from brutal punishments, superb discipline, respect and comradeship from generals in power positions and were some of the “best nourished troops” ever seen. It must be remembered that the peasants knew their positions, always remaining under those in leadership; nevertheless the relationship between the Army and the Generals thrived, with intense spirit de corps . Organisation was a three stage process , which first involved mobilising and organising the peasantry, second was concerned with setting up base areas and third was the final transition to conventional warfare. The Encirclement Campaigns of 1930 to 1934 illustrate Mao’s vehement tendencies, when his Red Army successfully and aggressively destroyed three attempts by Chiang Kai-shek...

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