Marine Animal Diversity And Adaptation To Life In The Seas And Ocean.

1541 words - 6 pages

IntroductionOceans and seas cover over 70% of the world's surface, and include some of the most productive environments on the planet (Michaelis & Carocci, 2000). There are an estimated 300,000 know marine species and they represent more phyla than in terrestrial environments. Life is unevenly distributed with areas of the deep oceans relatively void of life compared to coastal regions. Species diversity is higher in coastal rather than oceanic regions, and higher in tropical regions than arctic and temerate zones (Andre, 2005). Marine environments provide a wide range of physical conditions that organisms have become highly adapted to. In coastal areas for example, many organisms are euryhaline and eurythermal withstanding the wide fluctuations of salinity and temperature in their environments. Pelagic species living in the water column are adapted for floatation The majority of species are benthic and have adapted to remain on the sea floor and sustain high pressures (CHAPTER 12, 2005; Doberski, 2005).Adaptations to marine life across different phyla:Phylum ChordataMarine mammals, such as the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) show many adaptations to life in the water. As they originated from terrestrial environment they must come to the suface to breathe air. Adaptations for this include having a blowhole with a strong valve which opens briefly ensuring no water enters the lungs, located on the top of their heads so that they can breath whilst the rest of their body remains in the water. They give birth to precocious young that are able to swim to the surface to breath immediately and maintain homeostasis (ANON., Ocean Life; Dipper, 2005).As water has a high viscosity and is hard to move through, dolphins have adapted a streamlined body shape, replacing the top layer of skin cells as often as every 2-4 hours helping to keep the body surface smooth, and have few external appendages such as hindlimbs which create drag. They have also developed a strong tail for propulsion (Dolphin Research Center).To achieve homeostasis they must maintain their internal temperature, they have developed a thick insulating layer of fat cells, blubber, to reduce heat loss, also aiding bouyancy. Their lungs are held deep inside the warm body. They use a counter-current heat exchange system in the extremities such as the tail flukes. As shown in Figure 1, arteries carrying warm blood from the body core are surrounded by veins transporting cool blood from regions in contact with the cold water, therefore the cool blood is warmed on its return to the body, minimising heat loss(Dolphin Research Center).Figure 1(ANON., 2004, show many adaptations for deep diving mainly for oxygen conservation and pressure changes. Upon diving they stop breathing and the diving reflex produces slowed heart rate, slowed metabolism, reduced blood flow to non-vital organs such as...

Find Another Essay On Marine Animal diversity and adaptation to life in the seas and ocean.

Marine Life: Seychelles and Scuba Diving

1248 words - 5 pages -off dives where one can discover underwater caves and canyons, coral atolls and sand cays. They grant experienced divers a rare opportunity to investigate some less explored areas but can cater for beginners too. MARINE LIFE The Seychelles truly has reason enough to celebrate the sea and has earned its title for being a top diving destination. The marine life is diverse and rich in exotic fish, large pelagics, invertebrates and beautiful

Prevention, Mitigation, and Adaptation to Global Warming in the United States

2261 words - 9 pages Prevention, Mitigation, and Adaptation to Global Warming in the United States. Table of Contents: What is Global Warming and the causes it. Page 3 - 4 The Possible Consequences To the United States. Page 4 – 5 U.S. Federal. Page 5 California. Page 6 Individuals. Page 6 – 7 Corporations. Page 7 – 8 Conclusion. Page. 8 Bibliography. Page. 9 Prevention, mitigation, and

Expected Behavior in The Coquette and The Female Marine

2069 words - 8 pages . These transgressions into the neuter role are characterized by a departure from the normal roles of society which, if successful, complete the gender transference and allow the individual to live within a new set of boundaries. The Female Marine, or the Adventures of Lucy Brewer is the fictional autobiography of a woman who recounts her experiences in the navy and life as a cross-dressed male. Throughout her narratives, Lucy is able to

Organizational Roles and Responsibilities in the Marine Corps

2022 words - 8 pages AbstractLeadership and management for the most part are one in the same when speaking about the Marine Corps. There are very few circumstances where the two can be seen as being independent from each other. The different positions that may cause Marines to fill a more managerial role will be discussed. I will also delve into the roles that organizational managers play that keep the organization functioning well on a day-to-day basis. This paper

Finding Stress Relief in the Ocean: Literature and Pop Culture

1756 words - 7 pages No life is without stressors of physical, biological, and environmental origins. Each stressor has a unique affect on an individual, but most people can handle these affects in moderation. However, when stressors become intense or compound upon each other, they can cripple individuals. To prevent such debilitation, people must find temporary escapes from the pressures they normally face. Among many forms of release, the ocean can act as both

Diversity and Society and Diversity in the Meda

1212 words - 5 pages range of views to cater for various groups in society, and it is true to say that there is a great deal of evidence for this. Different newspapers reflect different political opinions, for example The Daily Mail reflects right wing conservative views whereas The Guardian is seen as reflecting more left wing liberal views. The media relfects diversity in other ways, for example offering services to different ethnic groups

Diversity and Diversity Management in the Age of Globalization

7894 words - 32 pages sciences is one of the most dynamic areas for theory building and research. Defining diversity requires a consideration of its historical antecedents, which includes the civil rights movement and affirmative action. Managing the changes in the workforces of organizations is the notion of diversity management. During the early era of diversity management, very little theory existed to guide the practitioner's actions to creating programs to manage people

Racial Diversity and the True Colors of Life

1040 words - 4 pages through the same eyes I do. In the world I have belonged to up until now each crayon in the box was of the same tint. I see that I am now a crayon in a very colorful box.   I have lived my life a very conservative, middle class Mexican-American Catholic. Racially, sexually or religiously diverse friends and encounters have been sparse in my upbringing. I have been exposed to more diversity in one day on campus than I have been in my

Marine Contamination and Pollution

1110 words - 4 pages Marine Contamination and Pollution According to the United Nations Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution (GESAMP) of 1972, marine pollution is ?the introduction by man directly or indirectly, of substances or energy to the marine environment resulting in deleterious effects such as harm to living resources, hazards to human health; hindrance of marine activities including fishing, impairing the quality

Managing complexity and diversity in the workplace.

1145 words - 5 pages When studying diversity one would incorporate that the concept itself can be complex. People are different in so many ways. In the face of growing diversity, businesses have to change some of their traditional assumptions and approaches. In this paper I will summarize five peer reviewed articles detailing best practices used in managing complexity and diversity. I will then identify an organization using each best practice and evaluate the

Similarities Between Human and Animal Characters in Life of Pi

1034 words - 4 pages As the reader examines the novel Life of Pi by Yann Martel, the reader recognizes the similarities between the story of the animals and the factual story. The main character Piscine Molitor Patel, known as Pi, goes through many struggles once he is stuck on a lifeboat in the Pacific Ocean which are shown between both of his stories. Throughout the novel, Martel describes to the readers the relationships the Pi has between the animals in the

Similar Essays

Diversity Of Marine Algae In The Biosphere 2 Ocean

1566 words - 6 pages of the biome, other known species of algae from various marine environments, Gulf of Mexico and Hawaii, were also introduced into the ocean. Research is continuing to be conducted on all various algae species in the Biosphere 2, to determine the diversity of the marine algae. Two red algae species, Haliptilon cubense and Jania adhaerens, are to be compared for their total biomass over a four year span (1999 to 2002). The Biosphere 2 was

Can Nano Technology Help Clean Up Oil Spills In The Ocean And Seas?

1326 words - 5 pages surface oil with booms and burning it creates vast clouds of dangerous smoke. It additionally leaves untouched, most of the spilled oil that cannot be targeting the surface with booms. Dispersants screw up the flexibility of native organisms to adapt to environmental changes. They create the oil rather more harmful to native organisms than it would are on its own. Once applied in a very Deepwater setting, as within the Deepwater Horizon spill

Opal And The High Seas Essay

2071 words - 8 pages Creative Writing: Rough Draft The celestial sun warmed the rocks at the edge of the cliff. Blue-green ocean kissed Opal’s fin. Ruby and violet glittered against the water where the rays of light reflect. Opal laid carelessly on the red rock, her pale skin exposed to the sunbeams. The air was static. From the distance, she could see the Montagne. Its sallow sails folded in. The ship would be launched the next day, if the wind

Diversity In School And Life. Essay

928 words - 4 pages outcome on students. The affirmative action law is hurting the minorities in the university education system.Students with inferior academic credentials are admitted in order to achieve proportional representation of races or simply to increase diversity on campus. "Many selective universities are so famished for minority students that they will accept virtually anyone of the right color who applies. In order to fulfill affirmative action