“We may discover resources on the moon or Mars that will boggle the
imagination that will test our limits to dream. And the fascination generated by
further exploration will inspire our young people to study math, and science, and
engineering and create a new generation of innovators and pioneers.” (George W.
Bush, a speech given at NASA, notable-quotes.com). Mars is also fourth planet
from the sun. (See fig. 1 on page 5.) Mars is obviously the topic for this paper in
which I’ll be writing. I will be telling about the size, mass, and density in my first
paragraph. The second paragraph is going to be about the composition of Mars, the
atmosphere, and the terrain. Next, after that it will be the revolution and rotation,
its relative position, and its axis. After that I will be talking about the origin of the
name of Mars. Then after the paragraph on visits, touchdowns, and flybys, I will
conclude my essay.
Mars is the second smallest planet in our solar system, the smallest is
Mercury if you are not counting Pluto. Referencing to its size, you can put 56.8%
of earth into Mars. (See the size difference in figure 2 on page 5.) This is pointing
out how small Mars really is. The mass of Mars in scientific notation is 6.4185
times 10 to the twenty-third power in kilograms; it can also be said as 0.107 Earths.
The density of the planet is 3.93 grams per centimeter cubed. That measurement is
less than earth by 1.59 times. (nssdc.gsfc.nasn.gov).
The composition of Mars means what are its layers and what is it made of.
Mars is known as the red planet, which is perfectly true. The surface of Mars is an
extremely thick layer of oxidized iron dust, which appears to be red, and rocks that
just happen to be the same color. Also in the red dust, there is a little bit of
magnesium, sodium, potassium, chlorine, and what is believed to be frozen water
In Mars’ summer rovers have found possible traces of flowing water. This was
discovered by a rover called Phoenix. Mars has the largest dust storms in our solar
system, which can last up to months and cover the entire planet. Underneath the
iron dust is a soft rocky paste similar to lava. The lava like mixture contains
silicon, oxygen, iron, and magnesium. The thickness of this layer known as Mars’
mantle is estimated to be 5,400 to 7,200 kilometers (900 to 1,200 miles.) Mars’
core is assumed to be composed of iron, nickel, and sulfur. The diameter of the
core is estimated to be 3,000 to 4,000 kilometers (1,800 to 2,400 miles.) (See fig. 3
on page 6.) (space.com).The atmosphere of this dusty red planet is much different
than our atmosphere on earth. The atmosphere on Mars is much weaker than
Earth’s atmosphere. Mars’ atmosphere contains more carbon dioxide at 95.3% than
anything else in its atmosphere. However Mars' atmosphere also contains 2.7%
nitrogen, 0.13% oxygen, 1/1000 water vapor, and 7 millibars of atmospheric
pressure. Methane has also been found in traces in the...