For Karl Marx human nature is a reflection of the society that they are a part of. It’s a product of the influencing relationships between a human’s consciousness (their psychology), the material world, and society. These three things produce our nature within society, but we also have a basic species nature. Our basic nature, or our species nature, is more important to Marx than our individual nature. Marx’s belief of our nature leads him to believe that communism is the most beneficial society for us to exist in.
If humans were living in a state of nature, according to Marx, are naturally drawn to one another because our collective nature is more important than our individual nature. In living in nature and trying to survive we are required to make something out of our surroundings. In essence humans produce a material world out of nature and here is where we differ from the animals. “But an animal only produces what it immediately needs for itself or its young. It produces one-sidedly, whilst man produces universally.” (266) Humans have a propensity to create more things than we need simply because we like to make things. We value ourselves as producers because it sets us apart and it demonstrates that we are free thinking. Also what we produce gives us a concept of ourselves, meaning that we can see ourselves in what we make. “Thus it is quite obvious from the start that there exists a materialistic connection of men with one another, which is determined by their needs and their mode of production and which is as old as men themselves.” (273) For as long as humans have been around we have been producing things. That production leads to connection because it shows that all of humanity has something in common. That we are all united in a way and in that way we are drawn to communities and eventually developing societies.
Typically we produce things to meet our needs and here is where we start to develop society. When needs are met new needs replace them. “As soon as a need is satisfied […] new needs are made; and this production of new needs is the first historical act.” (272) This leads to the first historical act called Asiatic because humans are continually gaining new needs which leads to a need for more production. One person only has so much time to produce goods so that leads to a division of labor. Division of labor maximizes the goods that can be produced for the whole community. Once division of labor has been created it, in turn leads towards society. This shows that our nature as humans to produce and because we are drawn to one another it only follows that we will develop society. “But natural science has invaded and transformed human life all the more practically through the medium of industry.” (267) Our natural propensities transform our lives through a natural progression towards industry because with the more we produce the more labor needs to be divided and more things need to be regulated.
It is the society that we end up...