Maslow's Hierarchy of Need
Many managers are puzzled by the question why some workers doing easy job remain dissatisfied, while others engaged in performance of complicated tasks are completely satisfied? What should be done for the people to work better? What stimulates their desire to work? Only knowing what are the main factors stimulating a man to act, what kind of motives lay as a basis of a man’s activities, one can try to develop an efficient system for work motivation.
In the process of human development, governors and managers noticed that material factors did not motivate workers so efficiently and the key motivating factor is not of material nature, but of psychological one.
A lot of various motivation theories were created by such authors as: Abraham Maslow, Frederick Herzberg, Douglas McGregor, David McClelland and others. In that particular paper the author will explore two motivation theories – Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and two factor theory of F. Herzberg.
The goal of the paper is comparative analysis of the theories of two authors.
The paper consists of three parts: the first two parts give a theoretical insight into two theories. The third part deals with comparison of two theories.
1. Maslow's hierarchy of needs
The notion of motivation is often explained in different ways. According to the Webster’s American Dictionary motivation is:
“The forces acting either on or within a person to initiate behavior.” (1997)
Common people use this term to describe their own and other people desire to do any job.
Abraham Maslow (1908-1970), American psychologist, one of the leaders of so-called humanistic psychology is known as a founder of the hierarchy of needs theory, later called as “Maslow’s pyramid”.
According to Maslow’s theory, a man has a plenty of various needs that may be classified according to 5 main categories:
1. Physiological needs necessary for a man to survive (need for meals, clothes, water, etc.).
2. Need for security and confidence in future.
3. Need for belonging and connection (social needs). A man tries to be a member of a team, to take part in public events. He or she searches for attention, friendship, love.
4. Need for acknowledgement and self-assertion (prestigious needs). A man needs to be self-asserted, to be acknowledged for his or her personal achievements, carrier growth, to be respected, to be a team leader.
5. Need for self-expression (spiritual needs). Spiritual needs are expressed through creative work, self-actualization.
All needs can be classified within the strict hierarchic structure, with physiological needs on the lower level and need for self-actualization – on the higher one. Classifying needs according to levels, Maslow aimed to show that physiological needs must be satisfied first, and after that, desire to satisfy needs of a higher level occurs.
For making comparison, a brief description of Herzberg’s theory...