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Massenmedien Konstruierte Realitäten Essay

7494 words - 30 pages

Massenmedien - Konstruierte RealitätenRealitätskriterien und Arbeitsbedingungen bei NachrichtensendungenInhaltsverzeichnisEinleitung (*)1 Massenkommunikation - Medienkommunikation (*)Ein theoretischer Überblick (*)1.1 Die Kommunikation von Massenmedien (*)1.2 Wie wirklich kann Wirklichkeit sein ? (*)1.3 Theoretische Positionen der Medienforschung (*)2 Berichterstattung in den Medien am Beispiel von Fernsehnachrichten (*)2.1 Strukturelle Rahmenbedingungen von Medienkommunikation (*)2.2 Nachrichten als Abbild der Wirklichkeit (*)2.3 Selektion (*)2.4 Objektivität (*)2.5 Inszenierungen - das Fernsehen als Bildmedium (*)Resümee (*)Literaturverzeichnis (*)EinleitungIn der Geschichte der Menschheit ist immer wieder zu beobachten, daß neue Errungenschaften und Entwicklungen nach ihrer Einführung oftmals lang anhaltender Kritik und großem Mißtrauen ausgesetzt sind. Das galt für die Eisenbahn ebenso wie für das Auto und Flugzeug, für das Telephon ähnlich wie für Rundfunk und Fernsehen und den Computer - weniger als Rechenmaschine denn als Kommunikationsmittel.Wenn auch die anfänglichen Drohungen vor physischen Einwirkungen durch Erfahrungen und Gewohnheit als widerlegt gelten dürfen, verfügen die Einwendungen in bezug auf den kulturellen Verfall der Gesellschaft durch den Einfluß der Medien - insbesondere des Fernsehens - über eine extreme Lebensdauer.Behauptungen über die Wirkungsweise des Fernsehens gibt es viele, und in den allermeisten Fällen sind es negative Auswirkungen, denen wir nach Ansicht verschiedener Autoren entgegenzusehen haben: Das Fernsehen verändere das Denken der Menschen und bedrohe die Buchkultur und Bildung, lasse Politik und öffentlichen Diskurs zu reiner Unterhaltung verflachen, überwältige uns mit einer Informationsflut und vermittle ein auf gefährliche Weise verfälschtes oder gänzlich falsches Bild der Wirklichkeit, es fördere Aggressivität und Kriminalität und zerstöre letztlich die gesamte Kultur. Es wirke auf interpersonelle Beziehungen und Bindungen, unterminiere die Familie, vermindere die zwischenmenschliche Kommunikation und hemme die geistige Aktivität bzw. Entwicklung seiner Zuschauer. Eine besondere Gefährdung bedeutet das Fernsehen für Kinder - es hat die Aufgabe der Erziehung übernommen, einer denkbar schlechten Erziehung, die die Kinder negativ beeinflußt, wie uns Postman in seinen erfolgreichen Buch "Das Verschwinden der Kindheit" (1983) deutlich machen will.Um Mißverständnisse auszuschließen: Es soll hier nicht behauptet werden, daß es keinerlei Zusammenhänge gibt, etwa zwischen wachsender Kriminalität und der im Fernsehen dargebotenen Gewalt - um einen besonders häufig und in der jüngsten Zeit andauernd heftig erhobenen Vorwurf gegen das Fernsehen zu nennen, und in Anbetracht der...

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