This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Measurement Of The Structure And Composition Of The Earth's Atmosphere

1082 words - 4 pages

The Earth is surrounded by a blanket of air, which we call the atmosphere. It reaches up to a 1000 kilometres from the surface of the Earth, so we are only able to see what occurs fairly close to the ground. Life on Earth is supported by the atmosphere, solar energy, and our planet's magnetic fields. The atmosphere absorbs the energy from the Sun, recycles water and other chemicals, and works with the electrical and magnetic forces to provide a moderate climate. The atmosphere also protects us from high-energy radiation and the frigid vacuum of space.Remote sensing instruments are used to measure the chemical composition, movement of the atmosphere and density. These instruments are usually located at a distance from the region being measured; usually, either at Earth's surface or on a lower-atmosphere aircraft, or within or above the region of interest; for example, from an orbiting satellite.Four distinct layers have been identified using remote sensing instruments; these are the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere and the thermosphere. These layers start at the Earth's surface and continue to the Exosphere which merges with the interplanetary medium.Troposphere: Is the layer that starts at the Earth's surface and continues till about 10kms above it. It contains most of the atmospheric mass; about 80% and most of the water vapour. The Earth's weather is created in this layer and also the temperature falls with increase in altitude at about 6.5 °C per kilometre to about a minium between -50 and -55 °C.Stratosphere: Is the next highest layer which measures about 50kms high. The stratosphere is important because it contains the ozone layer. The Ozone Layer protects the Earth by absorbing out the harmful ultraviolet rays. The temperature increases in altitude due to the ozone layer absorbing the UV rays up to a maximum of 2 °C.Mesosphere: The middle layer of the atmosphere being at the altitude between 50 and 80 km. As is the case for the troposphere, temperature decreases with altitude but more rapidly. At the peak of the mesosphere the temperature reaches approximately -95 °C. This is also the layer where meteoroids are burnt up when they enter the atmosphere.Thermosphere: The thermosphere begins about 80 km above the Earth. Temperatures increase with altitude up to 2000°C due to the absorption of solar radiation by the small amount of oxygen still present. In this region of the atmosphere, ultraviolet radiation causes ionization. Radiation causes the scattered air particles in this layer to become electrically charged enabling radio waves to bounce off and be received beyond the horizon.At the exosphere, beginning at 500 to 1,000km above the Earth's surface, the atmosphere blends into space. The few particles of gas here can reach 2,500°C during the day. The pressure at this level is so low that it's nothing more than a vacuum. The auroras are formed in this layer. These phenomena are created when particles of O2 and N2...

Find Another Essay On Measurement of the structure and composition of the Earth's atmosphere

The Determinants and Consequences of Friendship Composition

595 words - 3 pages The purpose of this study is to examine the friendship composition among high school teenagers and analyze the demographic patterns of the friendship links. Furthermore, the authors estimate if friendship composition have an effect on educational outcomes. The authors intend to close some gaps in the teenage friendship literature by focusing on the effects of the peer composition rather than the cohort quality of the teenager. They use survey


938 words - 4 pages COMPOSITION AND THE PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN You will apply principles of design and visual organisation to your designs using a combination of balance, scale, unity and proportion, rhythm, symmetry and positive and negative space. By utilising the elements of line, tone, texture, shape, and emphasis, you will achieve visual harmony in your composition and layout. As you develop a working knowledge of the properties of colour, you will apply

The Composition, Benefits, and History of Coal

3195 words - 13 pages the moisture content is lessened and the chemical composition of carbon is increased due to the mountain building stage. Chemical Composition of Coal There is a lot of carbon in coal, but what other elements are in coal that help make us decide the formation and characteristics if we were to do an ultimate analysis? Ultimate analysis in science terms is a method of rock identification that involves finding the primary elements of a rock

The Transformation of Music: Radio and Composition

1440 words - 6 pages in economic prosperity. Subsequently, radio’s emergence altered the way music was heard and, meanwhile, the composition of music was modified to reflect society’s general mood. The invention and widespread use of radios allowed citizens to experience music differently than they had before. Previously, one would have to venture outside the home to listen to music. One might travel to concerts, or into town to listen to a jukebox, or they

The Chemical Composition of Deodorants and Antiperspirants

1506 words - 6 pages . Silica which is a natural mineral is commonly used to reduce and absorb oiliness to keep the skin from feeling too greasy or grimy after the deodorant or antiperspirant is applied. Carrier substances are also active ingredients found in antiperspirants and deodorants. Antiperspirants can properly and efficaciously be applied to the skin if it is held within a carrying structure, such as some sort of liquid or solid. Water is widely used in

Amazing Atmosphere of the Earth

603 words - 2 pages The Earth’s atmosphere is divided up into the Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere and the Thermosphere. The Earth’s ozone layer is located in the lower stratosphere, which begins about 6 to 10 miles above the Earth’s surface and expands up to about 30 miles. The ozone layer shields all life on earth and protects it from the dangerous radiation of the sun. UV Radiation The ozone layer acts as a safeguard against the harmful radiation of the sun

The History of Earth's Mass Extinctions

1728 words - 7 pages The History of Earth's Mass Extinctions The four billion year history of earth has witnessed five mass extinctions, and some scientists believe that we are on the verge of the sixth.1[1] If we are in the midst of the next mass extinction, we are in the very early stages of an evolving, and escalating process. The most recent, or fifth mass of the extinctions occurred 65 million years ago at the boundary between the Cretaceous and

The Impact of Literary Composition

1034 words - 5 pages ” Orwell’s composition of the literary piece is successful in making a distinct viewpoint in his literary essays and books. George Orwell’s critical essay “Shooting an Elephant” is an example of literary theory. His writing is not purely a figment of his imagination, but a record of his life. He incorporates his views from his own personal experiences and ultimately has a greater impact on capturing the readers’ attention. “Shooting and Elephant

Banded Iron Formations and Evolution of the Atmosphere

1255 words - 5 pages Banded Iron Formations and evolution of the atmosphere The time between the formation of the earth and the beginning of the Cambrian(about 570mya) is a 4000 my long period known as the Precambrian, this includes approximately 90% of geological time of which we know very little about as pre-Cambrian rocks are poorly exposed, many have been eroded or metamorphosed and fossils are seldom found. The Precambrian has been divided into 3 Eons: 1

Atmosphere in The Hound of the Baskervilles

1293 words - 5 pages The Hound of the Baskervilles How does Sir Arthur Conan-Doyle develop and maintain an eerie atmosphere throughout his novel The Hound of the Baskervilles? Sir Arthur Conan-Doyle’s novel, the Hound of the Baskervilles, was originally published as a novel in 1902. This was an age when many people were interested in historical matters to do with things like ancient documents and there ancestors. Many of the popular books were in the

Symbols and Composition of the Statue Saint George by Donatello

803 words - 4 pages Saint George is a statue that was sculpted by Donatello in the prime of his career. From top to bottom, this realistic statue displays a sort of defiance towards his enemies and a sense of pride in his country. This begins with his expression of pride and inner turmoil on his face and ends with the wide stance of his feet, a mighty shield in-between. Even the platform he is standing on and the composition of his body help contribute to the

Similar Essays

The Structure And Composition Of The Atmosphere

528 words - 2 pages provide a moderate climate. The atmosphere also protects us from high-energy radiation and the frigid vacuum of space.Four distinct layers have been identified using thermal characteristics (temperature changes), chemical composition, movement, and density. These are:The troposphere which starts at the Earth's surface and extends 8 to 14.5 kilometers high (5 to 9 miles). This part of the atmosphere is the densest. As you climb higher in this layer

The Earth's Atmosphere Essay

1323 words - 5 pages The AtmosphereSoon after its formation (about 4,500 million years ago) Earth may have resembled present day Jupiter or one of the other giant planets, with a thick layer of gases surrounding a very dense core. In a place of the cosmic gases a secondary atmosphere developed, deriving from the earth itself. For many millions of years after its formation, the earth's surface was probably molten and, even after a thin outer crust had solidified

The Future Of Earth's Moon Essay

1027 words - 4 pages The Earth's moon has a great deal of mystery and indefinite discoveries left for us to explore. One of the most talked about topics of the Moon is if we are going to be living there in just a few short decades or centuries. Just imagine yourself, for example, weighing 150 pounds on Earth. If you were to live on the Moon, you would feel like you only weigh 26 pounds. That is because the Moon's gravity is only 17% of Earth's gravity. You

The Evolution Of The Earth's Crust

2557 words - 11 pages , fundamental planetary heat-loss processes, plate tectonic cycles, evolution of the continental crust, trace metal/volatile composition/concentration of deep mantle, and the environmental effects of releasing large amounts of volatiles into the oceans and atmosphere. Before LIP emplacement, magmas are contaminated with overlying mantle during the upwelling process (Maier et al., 2000). To investigate this process, the use of radiogenic isotopic