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Measurement Scales

The measurement of marketing research is essential to obtain meaningful data for marketing analysis. Measurement scales convert the features of an object into a formula that can be analyzed by a market researcher. Generally, scales are used to compute consumer data and responses into the following four categories; nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio.

Nominal

At the nominal level of measurement, numbers or other symbols are consigned to a fixed set of groups for the principle of labeling, naming, or classifying the studies. Gender can be an example of a nominal level variable. Applying the numbers one and two, for example, one can organize our studies into the categories "males" and “females,” with one indicating females and two indicating males. Researchers can apply any range of symbols to correspond to the distinct groups of a nominal variable; however, when numbers are utilized to denote the various categories, researchers are not indicating anything about the significance or quantitative variance among the groups. In nominal scale questions, it is important that the answer categories contain all probable answers. In order to be all-inclusive in the answer groupings, a researcher should include a grouping such as uncertain, other or do not know, so that respondents will not misrepresent their information by attempting to force fit their answer into the sets provided. It is important to be sure that the groupings provided are equally exclusive, meaning that they do not duplicate or overlap in any way (Stat Trek, 2011).

Ordinal

An ordinal scale designates direction, in addition to providing nominal information. Faster and slower or high, medium, and low are illustrations of ordinal levels of measurement. Categorizing an experience as an eight on a scale of one to ten tells us that it was higher than an experience ranked as a five. Various psychological inventories or scales represent the ordinal level of measurement. If a researcher wants to gauge consumers' approval with their dishwasher, they could ask them to indicate their feelings as either "very satisfied," "somewhat satisfied," “neutral,” "somewhat dissatisfied “or” very dissatisfied." The ranking in this scale are ordered, ranging the most satisfied to the least satisfied. This is what differentiates nominal from ordinal scales. However, different from nominal scales, ordinal scales will demonstration contrasts of the degree to which two subjects influence the dependent variable. For example, our approval ranking makes it important to state that one person is more satisfied than another...

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