This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Mechanisms That Give Rise To Rise To Absolute And Relative Pitch Perception

1241 words - 5 pages

With rare exception, adult humans are biased to process sound in terms of the relationship between pitches. We have no difficulty understanding a word spoken by two different individuals, even in a tonal language, since it is the relationship between pitches rather than the absolute pitch that is used to convey intonational and lexical meaning. Most adult humans are also effortlessly able to recognize two versions of a melody as the same if all intervals between its notes are preserved, even when the starting pitch is different. In contrast, songbirds show a tendency to perceive sound in terms of absolute rather than relative pitch (Hulse & Cynx, 1985). While this difference has long been thought to reflect fixed genetic differences in the neural processing of sound between the two groups, we explore the possibility that these distinct human and avian tendencies arise due to the importance of relative and absolute pitch to communicative ontogeny in the two groups. Our proposed experiments explore the extent to which a perceptual primitive of vertebrate auditory communication is shaped by experience.

Developmental studies have repeatedly demonstrated that perceptual faculties are molded by the behaviorally reinforced features of a child's environment (e.g. Werker & Tees, 1984). Human pitch perception appears to be shaped by experience during development evidenced by the lack of any reported case of an adult developing absolute pitch. Absolute pitch is rarely an important cue in human behavior, and so without this training, the developing auditory system may be biased to organize sound in terms of its relative pitch structure. In contrast, absolute pitch cues are salient for songbirds who use song to recognize individual conspecifics. Birds sing highly stereotyped bouts of song with stable absolute pitch across multiple bouts (citation?) which may strongly bias them to perceive sound in terms of absolute pitch. We hypothesize that by manipulating the auditory environment of both adult and juvenile songbirds so that absolute pitch is not a useful predictor of individual identity, a bias toward perceiving sound using relative pitch may emerge. If so, this study would provide the first concrete evidence that pitch processing biases are experience-dependent and would also suggest that the faculty for relative pitch processing, a facet of language and music processing, may be latent in a wider range of species. These results would inform debates about the evolutionary basis of pitch perception by providing data outlining the relative contribution of genetics and experience. Such experiments will also provide a framework for physiological investigation of the neural coding of absolute and relative pitch.

To investigate the flexibility of pitch processing in songbirds we plan a series of behavioral experiments with European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) using natural song excerpts that have been digitally shifted to create many versions with altered...

Find Another Essay On Mechanisms That Give Rise To Rise To Absolute and Relative Pitch Perception

Analyses of the factors that led to the rise of the communist party in China

2422 words - 10 pages factors that led to this rise of communism in China. The decline of the empire, foreign interference and imperial advances, and the warlord era are some factors, and these in turn contributed to the discontent of the peasants, another major factor. The actions of the rival political party, the Kuomintang, also aided the growth of communism. Another point to consider is the Japanese invasion. All these points, coupled with the way the CCP took

Weaknesses of the Weimar Government that Led to the Rise of hitler - Hwa Chong Institution / 2i3 - Essay

1632 words - 7 pages On the 9th of November, 1918, the Weimar Government, the first democratic government of Germany, was founded. However, in 1933, the Weimar Government collapsed and Adolf Hitler took over after a mere 15 years. So what events led to the Weimar government’s quick downfall, as well as Hitler’s subsequent rise? There are three main weaknesses of the Weimar Government that led to its collapse. Firstly, the government was run with an unsuitable

Analysis of the Claim that Mussolini’s Successful Rise to Power by 1922 Was Largely a Consequence of the Impact of the First World War

2697 words - 11 pages Analysis of the Claim that Mussolini’s Successful Rise to Power by 1922 Was Largely a Consequence of the Impact of the First World War Without a doubt, the role of the First World War in Mussolini’s spectacular rise to power between 1920 and 1922 was considerable, for it was surely a strong catalyst for change and Italy’s renewal, meaning it gave way to many problematic economical and political aspects, which in turn gave

How accurate is the claim that the effects of WWI were the most important reason for the rise of totalitarian governments in Italy during the period to 1939?

1164 words - 5 pages The rise of totalitarian governments in Italy became a decisive issue in the history of Italian politics. Many historians believe that the effects of the First World War were the most important reason for the rise of these fascists. However the war simply accelerated the necessity for a new and reformed government. Many factors existed before the war and the First World War simply highlighted the necessity for change. In addition, without the

The Neo-Malthusian Population theory assumes that poor nations will never be able to rise much above subsistence levels unless they engage in preventive population checks, if not positive checks

1484 words - 6 pages that formulate its ideology: population and per capita income (based on aggregate production). The theory in detail states that at a very low level of per capita income, the population change will be zero and a stable population will exist, this is seen in the case of absolute poverty where the birth rates are equivalent to the death rates. The equilibrium between birth rates and death rates is reached quite simply because higher incomes means less

Late to Bed and Early to Rise

1862 words - 8 pages ] differences distinguished students reporting mostly Bs or better from students reporting mostly Cs or worse” (Millman 4). This direct correlation between sleep and performance points to a cause-and-effect relationship between the two. Burdened with important tests and grades that often determine their futures, teenagers need to be able to perform at their best on a regular basis. High schools are meant to give students a comprehensive knowledge of all

An examination of the rationalizing force of globalization and the parochial forces that rise as a result of its diffusion into the Third World

1954 words - 8 pages Bin Laden himself expressed his disgust at the changing nature of his homeland of Saudi Arabia. He lashed out at the West due to what he saw as a domineering alien culture which was now imposing itself on even the institutions and proclivities that he found most sacred-those of a religious nature. Mystic reverence and simplicity was replaced with bombast and complexity. The enigmatic world of Islam which was so adored by bin Laden and his Al

Hitler's Rise to Power

793 words - 4 pages ) His book containing his racist views: that the Aryan race was the super race and it should be preserved, was soon very popular. He condemned the Jews and blamed them for Germany’s defeat in World War I. (Hitler’s Successful Rise) This book became the basis for the Nazi Party’s ideas and convinced more people of Hitler’s corrupt logic and beliefs. After Hitler attempted to gain control over Germany and failed in 1923, he abandoned his ideas

Hitler's Rise To Power

1790 words - 7 pages Hitler's Rise To Power The Antichrist is…a man with white skin, in everyday clothes, dangerously contemporary, and a mighty demagogue…The great Russian philosopher Soloviev described him. The Antichrist ‘does not look like he is,’ and therein precisely lies the danger. He is a young man with a strong personality and seductive power of speech and writing…He will win fame first by book…then, in Berlin, he will be come ruler of the ‘United

Sure to rise hms

899 words - 4 pages meaning or use of that place”. Sure to Rise resides suitably in Canterbury. It is important to its location, being a recognisable and successful Christchurch based factory, before it was demolished, and its representation of women important to the history of Canterbury. Historically, this work is a commemorating and memorializing artwork to Canterbury. Sure To Rise does not fit into the ideas of ‘medium specificity’ discussed by Clement Greenburg in

Hitler's Rise to Power

1070 words - 4 pages for different occupational and social groups. Hitler worked on exploiting the nation’s fears and prejudices, by using modern technology to give out its message. Presenting itself as a party that would protect Germany from the threat of a communist revolution, capitalizing on the people’s fear of the growing increase in the Communist Party’s votes. Although the SA’s actions towards communists alarmed many, some felt

Similar Essays

Stalin's Rise From Insecurity To Position Of Absolute Power

1798 words - 7 pages Stalin's Rise from Insecurity to Position of Absolute Power Stalin was a man who was very talented in the art of manipulating large numbers of people. He used his calculative cunningness in order to gain absolute influence over the people of Russia. He used propaganda, censorship and fear in order to manipulate the Russian people into how he wanted them to be. Even before Hitler consolidated his control over

Economic And Political Issues That Helped Hitler Rise To Power

2035 words - 8 pages rise to power. Adolf Hitler was not only a strong and powerful leader that could have rose to power completely on his own, yet many of the inhabitants in Germany was tired of everything and needed a changed to break through. From this, the people were willing from the start to accept him as a new dictator because of the challenges that accompanied them back home. Bitterness that piled up in time and the collapsing economy all made Hitler’s rise

Factors That Contributed To Hitler's Rise To Power

1052 words - 4 pages Factors that Contributed to Hitler's Rise to Power Both long-term and short-term causes contributed to Hitler's rise to power in many ways. The treaty of Versailles was a long-term cause .It caused chaos in Germany many years after the terms were agreed. The Germans from the beginning hated it. Hitler often spoke how he wanted to get rid of the treaty, when he addressed his rallies, this also makes it a short-term

Anlysis Of Karen Press's The Words That Rise To The Surface

1264 words - 5 pages The title of the poem, “the words that rise to the surface”, is indicative not only of the sentiment of anti-apartheid people living in South Africa but the manner in which the emotions and feelings of these people manifested themselves. Slowly, with the imagined metaphor of bubbles that start in a kettle – slow and steady at first with furious energy as both the poem and water reach boiling point. The context of the poem sheds