Most of the communication theory about media is clarified about how the society was affected by the media. But according to Blumler and Katz (1974) uses and gratification theory, it was proposed in another way round. According to uses and gratification theory, it suggests that the media user is not passive but takes an active role in selecting and using the media in their own life. In other words, it focuses more on the audiences, rather than the effect of media to the society (Dimbleby & Burton, 1998)
In addition, it suggests that we can quite in trying to satisfy that need. the media users select a media source in order to meet their needs and gratification. Therefore, the same media for example the social networking website may use by numbers of users but with different purposes (Dimbleby & Burton, 1998).
Herta Herzog (1944) was the earliest published researcher that does the research and examination on the media gratification. According to Herzog (1944), she does the research on dozens of soap opera fans and recognizes three categories of satisfactions. First, some of the respondents enjoy with the drama because of affective needs. Second, the listeners want to gained vicarious gratification by listening and knowing to the other’s experiences. And finally, some respondents think that they could learn from the radio soap opera (as cited in West & Turner, 2004).
The second stage of uses and gratification theory research was begun after investigators produced typologies representing all the reason people had for media use. Alan Rubin (1981) has identified the motivations for television user cluster into few categories: to pass time, for companionship, excitement, escape, enjoyment, social interaction, relaxation, information and to learn about a specific content (as cited in West & Turner, 2004).
Blumler and McQuail (1969), began use the uses and gratification theory to study UK 1969 election by investigative the reasons why people watch political programs. Therefore, by categorizing the...