Cusumano, D. L., & Thompson, J. (2001). Media influence and body image in 8–11-year-old boys and girls: A preliminary report on Multidimensional Media Influence Scale. International Journal Of Eating Disorders, 29(1), 37-44. doi:10.1002/1098-108X(200101)29:1<37::AID-EAT6>3.0.CO;2-G
The study conducted was conducted to measure the risk adolescents during the development of their body image and eating disturbances. A 3-point Likert scale was used among the one hundred and ninety six participants ranging from ages 8 years and 8 months to 11 years and 10 months. Two pilot studies were conducted in this study, to adjust the scales for the adolescent participants in a clear concise way for them to understand, and to be sure student participants were not fatigued from a plentiful survey. Cronbach’s alpha was used to test the reliability of the three subscales. The results indicated there was a significant difference in body dissatisfaction and media influence between the two genders in the study. The females in the study indicated there was a significant difference between body awareness and body dissatisfaction, while males had no significant difference. Both groups however indicated there was a correlation between the pressure of the media influencing body dissatisfaction. The discussion indicated there should be a larger sample of participants as well as specifically measuring the influence of media on clinical symptoms.
Murray, T., & Lewis, V. (2014). Gender-role conflict and men’s body satisfaction: The moderating role of age. Psychology Of Men & Masculinity, 15(1), 40-48. doi:10.1037/a0030959
The literature in used for this study identified there was a gender role conflict because there is an image for men to be masculine in Western culture. There is a rise in male body dissatisfaction, as men perceive muscle mass and weight as a qualification for attractiveness. The literature also focused on the media portrayal of muscle mass, as an example the G.I. Joe action figure was recognized as a masculine action figure that has increased its muscle mass over the recent years. The study contained one hundred and fifty six undergraduate male participants attending University of Canberra and the Southern Cross Health Club who ranged from 17 years of age to 71 years of age. Male participants were given two questionnaires relating to body dissatisfaction and gender role conflict rating themselves or their reactions to gender role expectations society has placed on them through a 6-point scale. The study reported there was a significant difference between the age of males and the perception of male dissatisfaction, and while over all there was no significant difference found between male body fat dissatisfaction and age there was a significant difference between muscle dissatisfaction. This study showed there was a relationship between age and body dissatisfaction, focusing on younger men as the individuals who have a lower sense of body satisfaction...