Medical Use Of Psilocybin Essay

1173 words - 5 pages

During a visit to Mexico, Gordon Wasson, a mycologist, discovered the use of psilocybin mushroom in spiritual ceremonies by Indian tribes. Upon experiencing the spiritual and hallucinatory effects of the mushroom, Wasson returned to the area accompanied by an experienced mycologist, Roger Heim, who managed to cultivate the mushroom once in France and send samples of it to the scientist who had discovered lysergic acid, Albert Hoffman. From the mushrooms, Hoffman successfully isolated two compounds which he further named psilocybin and psilocin. Analogs of these compounds were further synthesized and were employed mainly for psychotherapeutic uses. Many tests on psilocybin were made at Harvard University in the early 1960’s. However, along with LSD, psilocybin became a scheduled substance in 1970, making it illegal. During this time, psilocybin mushrooms became a part of the psychedelic and hippy movement and were used for recreational and spiritual purposes. Research on psilocybin ended in the late 1980’s because of strict rules imposed by the government but recently scientist have started researching on this chemical once more.

Chemical Structure
Psilocybin’s chemical structure is C12 H17 N2 O4 P. It has a ring configuration by the name of indole attached to an ethyl amine substituent. Indole’s are aromatic compounds that have a benzene ring attached to a pyrrole ring containing nitrogen. Psilocybin’s chemical structure is derived from an amino acid and tryptamine called trypthophan. It also has a visible structural resemblance with serotonin, a neurotransmitter responsible for “happiness”. Psilocybin is very soluble in water, insoluble in organic compounds and slightly soluble in methanol and ethanol. This due to the fact that it is a zwitterionic alkoid, meaning that it is a neutral compound, yet it posses formal electrical charges of the opposite sign that even out. Once in the stomach, due to the highly acidic environment, psilocybin undergoes a removal of its phosphate group, and is converted into psilocin. This process is called dephosphorylation. Aqueous solutions of psilocybin are very sensitive to light and rapidly oxidize in its presence. A great variety of analytical methods can be used for psilocybin identification and evaluation. Amongst them are thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography used along with mass spectrometry , infrared spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography.

Although prescribed use of psilocybin is rare nowadays for medicinal purposes; many tests have been done on its medicinal uses in patients with personality disorders. Some tests have shown a noticeable reduction in obsessive compulsive disorder as a result of psilocybin use. Psilocybin has also been tested and is sometimes administered to cancer patients and has been proven to ease mental stress and the emotional baggage caused by cancer by changing the patient’s perspective on his/her situation and life in...

Find Another Essay On Medical Use of Psilocybin

Legalization of Marijuana for Medical Use Only

2351 words - 9 pages The history of U.S. policy toward mind-altering substances has followed cycles of tolerance and intolerance ever since the mid-19th century. The medical use of the cannabis plant goes back at least 5,000 years to ancient China. It has been used by most of the world’s cultures for its healing properties (Medical Marijuana Cases 1). Today such conditions as Migraine headaches, Glaucoma, Cancer, Epilepsy, Asthma AIDS/HIV, Spinal injury, Muscle

Policy Analysis: The Compassionate Use of Medical Cannabis Act

2387 words - 10 pages I chose a very controversial Pennsylvania Senate Bill, No. 1182, the Compassionate Use of Medical Cannabis Act, which proposes to legalize the medical use of cannabis in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The bill will allow medical physicians in Pennsylvania to prescribe medicinal cannabis to patients who would benefit from the positive attributes (Memorandum, 2014). The bill was introduced by Folmer, Leach, Teplitz, Ferlo, Fontana, Farnese

The Use of Mathematics in the Medical Field

1099 words - 4 pages small bag, a nurse would have to convert the original cubic centimeters to milligrams. Just as important as conversions, ratios and proportions also play a huge role in the medical field. Nurses use ratios and proportions when giving medication based on their patient’s weight and height. A doctor may give the order 25 mcg/kg/min. If a patient weighs 114 pounds, how many milligrams of medication should he/she be given per hour? To figure

The Greatest Medical Breakthrough?the use of Pluripotent Stem Cells

1704 words - 7 pages An Assessment of The Greatest Medical Breakthrough the use of Pluripotent Stem Cells A critical review of the pro and con analysis, of arguably, the most controversial issue of the 21st century—the use of pluripotent stems cells. In addition, the ensuing synthesis and prescription based upon empirical data and critical thinking. Given the enormous promise of pluripotent stem cells to the development of new treatments for the most

What might christians think about the use of animals in medical research?

1070 words - 4 pages What Might Christians Think About The Use Of Animals In medical Research?One of the questions facing society today is whether animals should be used in scientific experimentation. In the midst of this controversy, many ideas about nature, primarily animals, are formed. Each side has different arguments, each one posing questions on the place of humans with respect to animals and the rest of the natural world.Many people argue against using

Paper for my health class assessing the use of medical marijuana. I received an A on this paper. My sources are listed at the end.

1425 words - 6 pages families to plant at least one teaspoon of cannabis seeds. In our century, marijuana was outlawed for any use other than medical in 1923, was still being grown in 1933 and sold to drug companies. Finally, marijuana was outlawed in December of 1937.Currently, marijuana is still being used in some cases thanks to scientific discoveries made with today's technology. As we learn more about marijuana's medicinal values, we may in the future see it

Psychology / the use and definition of psychology and its advantages to modern medical theory

1345 words - 5 pages patterns, and predicting behavior. The first step into a psychologist's research is to come up with a hypothesis. The next step is to choose what type of research method to use. There are three different types of research: naturalistic observation, systematic assessment, and experimentation. Naturalistic observation involves watching the behavior of human beings and other animals in their natural environment. This type of observation is often

Discussion of the Sanctity of Life Principle in reference to why it should be abandoned - use of medical examples used to support contention

1608 words - 6 pages of the value of a person's life. This causes many problems with today's medical technology being able to prolong the lives of people with brain damage that would have died 30 or so years ago. Today we are now presented with three stages of death, the definitions of which, detailed by John Burgess (2000), are as follows:The first stage of death is when the cortex ceases to function. This leaves the patient in an irreversible coma. However, their

Part of the Neuron Affected, Inhibitory or Excitatory Potential Changes and Ion Channels Affected by Psilocybin

1617 words - 6 pages potentials] via 5HT2A receptors provides a possible synaptic mechanism for the hallucinogenic effects of these drugs." Psilocybin is an indoleamine, in the same chemical group with serotonin and tryptamine. According to the 2003 Merriam Webster Medical Dictionary, an indoleamine is "any of various indole derivatives that contain an amine group." Typically, indoleamines have an affinity for dopamine receptors. A classic example is

Drug Abuse of Hallucinogens

1667 words - 7 pages Jan 2014. “Hallucinogens: LSD, Peyote, Psilocybin, and PCP.” Teen Teen Challenge of Southern California, 2014. Web. 29 Jan 2014. “Hallucinogens.” Palo Alto Medical Foundation, 2014. Web. 28 Jan 2014. “Hallucinogen Rehab Treatment.” Drug-rehabilitation, n.d. Web. 28 Jan 2014.

Side Effects of the Drug Psilocybin

2794 words - 11 pages females ranging in age from 18 to 75 (M = 40.72, SD = 12.86) (Beach 1997). Of the total questionnaire responses, 35.9% (n =46) of the participants reported having head a voice(s) with psilocybin use, while 64% (n+ 82) of the participants stated that they had not heard a voice (Beach 1997). The group that reported having heard a voice(s) with psilocybin use, on average, took the mushroom more times, took a larger amount of dried grams of

Similar Essays

Medical Use Of Marijuana Essay

1203 words - 5 pages Since the legalization of marijuana for medical use, eight out of ten states caused a decreased in teenage cannabis use. Currently in the nation there are several states that allow the use of marijuana for medical purposes. Government officials have different belief on medical marijuana. According to Judge Young, “Marijuana has been accepted as capable of relieving the distress of great numbers of very ill people” (“Top Ten”). The governmental

The Legallization Of Marijuana For Medical Use

1133 words - 5 pages medical use and has no place in medicine, pain relief or around our children(May 14, 2002 ).There is an approved drug called Marinol, which is based on the THC in marijuana, but because of the low absorption and the time it takes for the pill to work, people are preferring to smoke marijuana joints instead of taking the pill.There are so many more ailments that smoking marijuana can help with, but with all of the medicines on the market already to

Use Of Marijuana For Medical Purposes

511 words - 2 pages Use of Marijuana for Medical Purposes There is still more controversial debate over the use of marijuana for medical purposes. The advantage with using marijuana for medical reason is, it eases the pain, and relaxes them so they can enjoy the rest of their life. For these terminally ill patients the marijuana also makes them happy and enjoyable to be around. The disadvantage is that after smoking it for an extended period of

The Use Of Animals In Medical Research.

993 words - 4 pages addiction, and senility.Animal rights advocates challenge the use of animals in research, arguing that besides being inhumane, it is unnecessary. In addition, they claim that laboratory animals are abused.Critics of animal experimentation question whether animals are really needed for medical research. They point to the many alternative methodologies that have been developed and question whether animal experimentation has provided any benefits that