o Pain Medications
o Mood Stabilizers
o Anticonvulsants/Seizures Medications
o Cognitive Enhancers
(Each of these medication categories will be automatically identified by the software based on the lists that follow. The user will be provided with the appropriate section on Jon’s list that provides both a list of related medications within this category and comments on the potential impact on testing.)
Opiates and synthetic opioids (Morphine, Dilaudid, Tylenol #3, Vicodin, Oxycontin, Tramadol, Fentanyl, Oxycodone, Codeine, Methadone)
Comment: These medications tend to be habit forming, tend to induce tolerance and are sometimes used by patients for their anti-anxiety and/or soporific properties. Opiates and synthetic opiates, particularly at higher doses and/or in combination with anti-anxiety medications and/or alcohol may compromise attention, concentration and performance on tasks that require mental speed, power, stamina and flexibility.
Valium (Diazepam), Librium (Chlordiazepoxide), Xanax (Alprazolam), Clonazepam (Klonopin), Clorazeptate (Tranxene), Estazolam (ProSom), Eszopiclone (Lunesta), Flurazepam (Dalmane), Lorazepam (Ativan), Oxazepam (Serax), Quazepam (Doral), Temazepam (Restoril), Triazolam (Halcion)
Comment: These medications have potent anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, anti-convulsant and amnestic properties. When administered intravenously or in high doses, benzodiazepines may produce anterograde amnesia. Their effects are potentiated by narcotics and alcohol. Sudden discontinuation of benzodiazepines may produce a wide variety of withdrawal effects, including anxiety, insomnia, panic attacks and impairment of memory and concentration. The clinician should be alert to the possibility that the patient is taking more than one type of benzodiazepine, is taking more medication than is prescribed, or is ingesting other CNS depressant medications. Combinations of alcohol and benzodiazepines may be strongly sedating.
Zolpidem (Ambien) and Zaleplon (Sonata, Starnoc)
Comment: These sleep inducing agents have less risk of inducing dependence than benzodiazepines and do not appear to have significant anxiolytic muscle relaxant or anti-convulsant properties. They may, however, produce amnestic effects. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of drug interactions with other CNS depressant medications.
Comment: Somnolence, dizziness and fatigue are reported side effects.
Comment: Side effects are similar to those of short acting benzodiazepines and also include dizziness and headache. Other sedative hypnotics are not recommended with administration of this medication.