Who were the Goliards and how did they influence music?
The Goliards were wandering scholars who were keen on having adventures. They took their name from 'Bishop Golias', a fallen priest who they often sang about, but he was probably a fictional character. Some of the more serious students would travel from university to university in search of specific knowledge, but most were in search of wine, women, and song. They wrote a variety of songs; including love songs, political satires, and drinking songs. Although only some of the remaining works have musical notation, it is believed that almost all of their writings were to be sung. Goliardic songs appear to be the earliest known examples ...view middle of the document...
The kings held this land but what they believed was divine right, but there was no way for them to effectively rule all the land since there was no quick system of communication. As a solution to this problem, the kind would appoint lords, or barons, to watch over a specific portion of the land to which they would repay him in monetary and military support. However, the barons quickly realized they were having the same problem as the king with too much land to watch over. They made a similar agreement to the one they had made with the king with a knight or relative. The land continued to be divided like this until eventually the class of lords were solidified into an upper nobility class. This upper class usually felt like they were superior to the common peasants, or serfs and were often merciless to them. Approximately ninety percent of the people in the middle ages were considered peasants. There was still, however, a division of peasants into free and a type of indentured servants. The feudal society was constructed for one main reason: security. The upper noble class wanted the security of maintaining control over their kingdoms, so they believed they were forced to delegate this power to local control. The peasants also wanted security from barbarians and invading armies so the development of the feudal system was inevitable (Glad).
What was the importance of knighthood and chivalry?
Knighthood, originally, was a professional association that included men who could afford the investment of mounted warfare (horse and armor). The concept arises in the 11th century with the members being nobles, small land-holders, free men, and craftsmen. The Cluny monks, who wanted to give an emotion to warfare, came up with the idea of a soldier who follows a certain code of behavior or morality. This strong influence led to what we now call chivalry. In the late 12th century, literature also provided a model for the knight community as way to glorify it. Although the development of gunpowder made the use of knights unreliable, the chivalric ideals they stood for continued to live on (Verde).
What scientific advancements were made during this time period?
Society started to perk up a little bit around Europe in the High Middle Ages and was considered a time marked by advances made in architecture, science,...