This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

The Brain Drain And Revolution In The Late 19th And Early 20th Century China

1693 words - 7 pages

Introduction
By the end of the 19th century, Chinese officials were beginning to realize that their country’s educational infrastructure was becoming increasingly anachronistic. Traditional education largely ignored technology—considered it low class, even—and students instead focused on cultivating a sense of moral righteousness. Yet, the Confucian-centered examination system was beginning to prove ineffective in a world where modern militaries predominated in international relations. China learned this painful lesson during a succession of lost wars, eventually entering a long period of introspection, quite notably, by first looking outward. Foreign education systems were of particular interest to this nation in transition. Foreign universities, especially in Japan and the United States, attracted students of politics and economics, engineering and technology. Perhaps more important, though, many of these students later returned to China and became involved in the groundbreaking political and cultural developments of the era as well as the heated debates surrounding this change. “Brain drain,” therefore, works in both directions. For the late Qing and early Republican governments, interaction with foreign ideas not only helped revive China, but also helped the nation transition from a multinational empire to a modern nation state. Ironically, however, in the course of their contact with foreign ideas, these students of Western culture eventually helped topple the very regime they originally sought to strengthen. New ideas and revolutionary change after all, frequently go hand in hand.

The Historical Backdrop
Beginning with the First Opium War (1839-1842), China was forced out of its long period of isolation and shocked into an encounter with Western civilization (Bary 661). The transnational character of China’s development from the late 19th century to the present day owes much to this “clash of civilizations.” Change, however, was neither all positive nor without opposition. In fact, the late Qing Empire’s encounter with Western civilization was necessarily heralded by guns, warships, and other new instruments of Western military might. The narrative of China’s dynastic glory was replaced with a newer, less flattering image of China as the “sick man of Asia” (Holcombe 193). Fears of the encroaching imperial powers were only heightened after China lost in the 1865-60 Opium War, as were fears of increasing internal disorder, as evinced by the 1851-64 Taiping Rebellion (Bary 661; Rhoads 1-2). China would later suffer yet another humiliating defeat in the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-5, but they first instituted a series of reforms in an attempt to curtail foreign dominance, particularly in the military sphere.
China thus entered a period of so-called “self-strengthening,” a government-led “restoration” that spanned the years between 1961 and 1895. This movement was largely a response to these early military defeats and the nation’s...

Find Another Essay On The Brain Drain and Revolution in the Late 19th and Early 20th Century China

India in the late 19th century. To what extent could India be considered a 'nation' in the late 19th to early 20th centuries?

698 words - 3 pages Late nineteenth to early twentieth century India, was directly controlled by Great Britain, and therefore, in name, it was a colony of the British Empire and not a nation of its own. However, India could be described as a nation, as the result of India's ability to be self-governing and self-sufficient and the Indian peoples' desire for self-government, as well as various aspects of Indian culture, such as religion, language, customs, and

Law and Order in London in the Late 19th Century

1565 words - 6 pages Law and Order in London in the Late 19th Century The East End of London was well known for its high crime levels. There was a very dense population which resulted in high levels of poverty, unemployment and of course crime. People in the East End would often turn to crimes such as thieving, prostitution and drunkenness. People were frequently driven to perpetrate criminal acts by desperation, despondency and the idea

Law And Order In The Late 19th Century

880 words - 4 pages Law And Order In The Late 19th Century At the beginning of the 1800s, crime went up a significant amount because of the Industrial Revolution. Theft was the main crime. Because so many people were living in such a small area it lead to crime. With the invention of steam power, which lead to factories, which lead to cities. With cities now growing all over England, law and order needed to be improved. London s

Study notes on Western influence and pressure in the history of China and Japan in the 19th and 20th Century

850 words - 3 pages PART 1Western influence and pressure in the history of China and Japan in the 19th and 20th Century should not be dismissed, because they are often the impetus, if not the main driving force, of important internal events. China and Japan's own situation and internal forces, then, temper how each country responds to these Western pressures and influences. China, already under the yoke of the Manchurian Jun Hsien rule, wrestled repeatedly with

Failed Farm and Labor Organizations in the Late 19th Century

1203 words - 5 pages public, these major strikes were lawless and could have been considered a form of anarchy. They were seen as a form of rebellion against business and government. American society of the late 1800's opposed the labor movement was seen as being made up of violent troublemakers and anarchists. The image of unions was in part due to the Haymarket Square Bombing, which was associated with anarchists, and confirmed the public's opinion when several

Significant Changes in World History from late 19th Century to the end of the 20th Century

1618 words - 6 pages represent this transformation,and why?In the period from the late 19th to the end of the 20th century, the world underwent many dramatic changes that impacted every aspect of society. Technological innovations have produced a highly interconnected world. Communication was greatly improved first by the advent of the telephone and recently, the internet. Travel was made exponentially quicker evolving from trains to automobiles and airplanes. These

The colonialism and imperialism in China in the 19th century

895 words - 4 pages had no involvement in China, which led to the "Open Door Policy" which stated that all nations should have an equal opportunity at China.What are the characteristics of 19th century imperialism in China?In politics, foreign imperialist occupation of the land of China, and gradually establish potential power range, such as the Treaty of Nanking. In addition, foreign consular jurisdiction also achieved through war to erode the autonomy of

China In The 20th Century

2928 words - 12 pages Overview China in the 20th century has been going through enormous changes. From colonialism and imperialism to republicanism, from communism to capitalism, and from underdevelopment to a country maintaining over 10% economic growth for over ten years. In this research paper, I will focus on the transition of China from a Communist command economy to a type of market economy as well as the economic fluctuations throughout this

Industrialization in 19th and 20th Century

1493 words - 6 pages . Industrialization was a period of rapid expansion in the 19th and 20th century for the United States and had a profound effect on the country. Although there was much success across the country, such as massive population growth and manual labor becoming easier, the negative effects of industrialization outweigh the positives.

Law and Order in Late 19th Century

2126 words - 9 pages Law and Order in Late 19th Century In the 19th century the main aim of the Metropolitan police was to deter criminals from committing crime rather than actually solving it. However the police force did have to deal with many cases of drunkenness and petty theft, which were common in 19th century London. As well as dealing with the common crimes, the police also got involved in controlling public demonstrations. They

Agrarian Woes in the late 19th Century

982 words - 4 pages agriculture, and endless farmland spiked an unnecessary volume of production out west. Falling prices caused by deflation provoked the most criticism from farmers. Cash crops like wheat and cotton saw a staggering drop in value during the late 19th century, and when many farmers had invested so much into new machinery, it became harder and harder to get out of the red. The Populist Party planned to fight deflation by repealing the Coinage Act of

Similar Essays

Nationalism And Racism In The Late 19th And 20th Century

1247 words - 5 pages In the late 19th century, with the squelching of the revolutions of 1848, many Europeans still desired reforms. In this desire, the longing for unification began to gain ground. As the probability of unification in places, such as, Germany and Italy began to intensify, Europeans with liberal views quickly began to entertain a nationalistic way of thinking. Many leaders of this school of thought were supporters of, British statesman, Benjamin

The Legacy Of Perceptions Of Interracial Relationships As Demonstrated In Late 19th And Early 20th Century Black Literature And Events

2057 words - 8 pages The Legacy of Perceptions of Interracial Relationships as Demonstrated in Late 19th and Early 20th Century Black Literature and Events The history of interracial relationships in America is a painfully loaded issue which is still evolving in the consciousness of the 20th century. Because the first instances of sexual integration occurred under the institution of slavery, our understanding of them is necessarily beset with dominance, violence

Modernism In The Late 19th And 20th Centuries

1260 words - 6 pages The late 19th and 20th centuries were full of various technological innovations and major social upheavals. From the conflicts brought by a world at war to the booming revolutions of industry, civilization had gotten quite a boost. This led to new ways of creative expression, in both visual art and literature, that broke the binds of tradition and classical design. The term Modernism can characterize a broad array of styles and techniques

Expansionism In The 19th And Early 20th Century U.S. Was A Departure Of Past American Expansionism

884 words - 4 pages DepartureExpansionism in the 19th and early 20th century U.S. was not a continuation of past American Expansionism. Throughout American history, prime motives for geographical and political expansion have been in support of U.S. economy. As the country grew, many other issues became important in the shaping of American expansionism. Slavery and investment of capital were major forces behind these issues. All these events involved economic