Human genetic engineering technology is more advanced in the contemporary world, attracting numerous people support human enhancement. According to the Children's Medical Research Institute and The Children's Hospital at Westmead (2012), ‘over 1800 gene therapy clinical trials have been completed, are ongoing or have been approved worldwide’, which shown the increased significance of human engineering in the society.
In accordance with the Oxford Dictionary (2006), human genetic engineering refers to the science of changing the way of a human by altering the information in its genes. Human genetic engineering can be divided into two categories, including genetic therapy (pathological purpose) and genetic enhancement (non pathological purpose), both make oneself better by optimizing attributes or capabilities (National Human Genome Research Institute, 2006). It can also be treated as remedy a loss of normal human function that may prevent or reduce a person’s ability to function independently (Mayes, 2012).
I come to agree that seeking enhancement is not an appropriate method to improve human well-being. Sometimes, supporters seems a bit overstate the merits of human enhancement and overlook the drawbacks and side effects of it. I believe that there are real problems for seeking enhancement even though achievement is acquired for what we supposed not to be acquired.
Although the technological development of human engineering is increasingly mature, several concerns and problems are yet to be overcame. In The Case against Perfection: ethics in the age of genetic engineering, Sandel (2009) suggested that the desire of mastery is negative, which alter humility, responsibility and solidarity, the three key features of our moral landscape. Sandel proposed that whether we should accept, improve the gift or just create a ‘thing’ that is comparable to gift.
First of all, with regard to the point of humility, it is true that the sense of giftedness is being destroyed. The occurrence of human enhancement developed a virtual hope for people for being who they liked. With the help of genetic engineering technology, people are able to select the preferable genes and talents, namely, fulfilling people’s desire of different aspects. When enhancement can be used to acquire different abilities, the so-called “gift” no longer existed. Human have the chance to make their own choice, transform into the their ideal person with less restriction. Thus, ‘gift’ is replaced by ‘genetic modified ability’, and the existence of gift would gradually be forgotten. Owing to the reason that enhancement is easy to be accessed, people will take the acquisition for granted. As human enhancement does not require much efforts but only monetary input, people would not give thanks and cherish what the have got. As a result, people might lose their determination and encouragement in achieving certain goal. Increase individual well-being means ‘to intensify, increase, or further...