which theory played the biggest part in transformation? Why did it occur in Mesoamerica?
Mesoamerica went through a radical transformation since the adaptation of agriculture from their hunter-gather societies into reformed Mayan city states under the control of political hierarchies. The authenticities of these leaders was determined by surplus of goods, particularly maize which was a significant part of their culture and religious connections to the Mayan gods, goddesses and deities. This transformation initiated from Pre-Olmec Period to the Late Classic Maya Period. During this transformation period, Mesoamerica adopted new technology, implemented social identities and political reforms, established symbolic and religious meanings and improved intercity relations which all coincided with the systems theory used in processual archaeology. State complex was achieved at the beginning of Maya civilisation with the agricultural surplus allowing craft specialisation to occur.
The transformation between the simple hunter-gathers society and the complex Mayan state occurred from the Pre-Olmec Period between 1200 and 400 BC to the Late Classic Maya society between AD 700 and 800.The Pre-Olmec Period signified pre-complex society due to the structure of egalitarianism and diversity in cultures, this is significantly different to the Maya society that witness not only the upheave of literature, counting system, religious ideology and political hierarchy. What is significant about this era is these innovations not only created social classes and allowed high upkeep for large population densities, they were able to unify the geopolitical sphere of cities under the same language and belief system through accepted iconography in art representing Maya gods and deities. Specific roles were allocated to the population as priests were provided important roles in maintaining the order, authenticating authority and advising kings of ceremonies. Their power was balanced with the hierarchy of nobles that controlled this surplus in commodities that controlled the politically unified kingdoms. Rapid transformation occurred between the hunter-gathers and the Maya civilisation through adoptions of unified culture.
Gordon V. Childe’s theory hypothesises that states occurred as a result from societies shifting towards agricultural farming and this by far has had the biggest influence to how Mesoamerica as able to support a technological in terms if craft specialisation and social boom in reformations. Childe’s theory on the ‘Urban Revolution’ highlights the purpose of Mesoamericans urbanising into kingdoms as the early introduction of agriculture paved way for intensification, especially with maize that became their staple food...