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Metakognition Der Schüler Essay

921 words - 4 pages

Im Fach Geschichte spielt die Metakognition eine zentrale Rolle, da immer wieder Texte und Quellen gelesen und anschliessend besprochen werden. Wird die Quelle nicht verstanden, so sollte der Schüler darüber nachdenken können, weshalb er sie nicht versteht oder welche Möglichkeiten er noch hat, um sie analysieren zu können. Die Lehrperson kann mit zwei Schülern besprechen, wie sie eine Textzusammenfassung im Geschichtsunterricht so vorbereiten, dass sie ihre Erkenntnisse mit Hilfe einer Folie der Klasse vorstellen können. Wenn im Lauf der Lektüre dieses Textes nach einigen Seiten festgestellt wird, dass man nicht weiss, wovon der Text handelt, dann zeigt dies, dass die Lesetätigkeit auf irgendeine Art und Weise kontrolliert und überwacht wird. Hier setzt die Metakognition ein. Man kann zwei Arten von metakognitiven Strategien unterscheiden, die sich entweder auf das Wissen über Gedächtnis-, Denk- und Lernprozesse (deklaratives Metawissen) beziehen oder die Fähigkeit ausdrücken, sich des eigenen Wissens bzw. Nicht-Wissens zu vergewissern.Bei der Metakognition geht es um die Frage, ob sich die Lernenden bewusst sind, wie das Wissen über die eigene Person, über die zu bearbeitenden Aufgaben und die anzuwendenden Strategien die Lernergebnisse beeinflussen. Wenn ein Lernender nun weiss, dass er in Geschichte gut ist, ihm bewusst ist, dass er mit den Aufgaben, die im nächsten Teil gestellt werden, keine Mühe hat, weil er weiss, dass er über Strategien zur Lösung der Aufgaben verfügt, wird seine kognitive Leistung besser ausfallen, als wenn diese Voraussetzungen fehlen (Dubs 1995:172). Diese metakognitive Kompetenz kann sich zufällig oder durch systematische Förderung entwickeln.Wie kann man diese Kompetenz aber fördern? Dubs (1995:172) führt an, dass dies durch einen guten Unterricht geschehen kann. Meine Metakognition in der Geschichte hat sich durch gut strukturierten Unterricht entwickelt, der abwechslungsreiche Aufgaben an die Lernenden stellte, ohne dabei schematisch zu wirken. Dadurch verstand man geschichtliche Ereignisse im grösseren Zusammenhang, da die Aspekte aus verschiedensten Blickwinkeln durch die Lernenden selbst erarbeitet und vorgestellt werden mussten. Diskussionen fanden meist im Nachhinein statt, wobei auch der Lernprozess unter die Lupe genommen werden musste. Es wurde durch die Lehrerin aber auch durch die Mitschülerinnen (ich war in einer reinen Mädchenklasse) auf die Fehler hingewiesen und was besser gemacht werden sollte. Aber auch positive Lernprozesse wurden hervorgehoben, so dass andere davon profitieren konnten. Selber erkannte man das richtige Vorgehen und versuchte in der nächsten Aufgabe diese Prozesse wieder einzubauen und neue zu entwickeln. Dadurch entwickelte man ein selbständiges Lernen.Zu den Aktivitäten des selbständigen Lernens gehören unter anderem...

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