Metodi In Psicologia Essay

3351 words - 13 pages

Le teorie scientifiche non sono semplici speculazioni razionali, ma modelli ipotetici che devono essere messi alla prova e dimostrati.Teoria razionalistica si basa su coerenza logica (Aristotele)e non su verifiche e dimostrazioni di tipo empirico.Psicologia scientifica; Approcci metodologici; strumenti e tecniche.La Psicologia si è costituita come scienza autonoma nel 1879 primo laboratorio di psicologia scientifica, dove veniva applicato il metodo scientifico. Obiettivo della psicologia era una interpretazione empiricamente fondata delle funzioni mentali e quindi si è proposta di studiare in modo sistematico (raccolta sistematica e l'analisi razionale di dati osservabili oggettivamente), con il metodo comune alle scienze naturali le funzioni mentali e il comportamento umano che fino a quel momento erano ritenuti oggetto delle discipline filosofiche e religiose.Il metodo scientifico è caratterizzato da oggettività, variabili e controllo.Ciò significa innanzitutto che persone diverse devono poter compiere, nelle stesse circostanze, le stesse osservazioni (oggettività).Inoltre il compito dello scienziato consiste nel determinare il rapporto che esiste tra le variabili che osserva per dimostrare o smentire le teorie esplicative sulle cause dei fenomeni (variabile dipendente e indipendente, manipolata), dove la variabile è costituita da un evento osservato dallo scienziato a cui possono essere attribuiti valori differenti.Infine una ricerca per essere valida, non può essere condotta senza il controllo. Per controllo si intende la capacità di eliminare le influenze di variabili diverse (variabili confondenti e asistematiche ) da quelle la cui influenza reciproca viene studiata.In psicologia è importante anche il concetto di misurazione che costituisce nel mettere in relazione certe proprietà degli eventi che osserviamo con proprietà dei numeri reali (isomorfismo). In matematica questo concetto si riferisce al rapporto tra una grandezza e un'altra della stessa specia. Stevens precisò che il numero in psicologia ha significato diverso rispetto al numero nelle scienze esatte, non quantità ma è un indice di posizione (presenza in misura maggiore o minore di una qualità) o un indice di riferimento (continuum). I diversi livelli di misurazione corrispondono a quali proprietà dei numeri reali vogliamo utilizzare.Le strategie di ricerca che dimostrano o confermano le teorie psicologiche sono varie e dipendono dall'oggetto di studio specifico, le scelte epistemologiche e i metodi di ricerca diverse .Il metodo sperimentale , quando obiettivo è verificare una ipotesi sul rapporto esistente fra eventi e sulle relazioni causali fra di essi. Vengono individuate le variabili indipendente/i e dipendente/i, viene manipolata la variabile indipendente e viene osservato come al variare di essa varia la variabile dipendente. Vantaggi:...

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