Mica Intelegere Si Intelegerea Balcanica Essay

7581 words - 30 pages

Mica Intelegere si Intelegerea BalcanicaIntemeierea Micii Intelegeri este strans legata de lupta celor trei popoare care si-au desavarsit in anul 1919 unitatea nationala (Iugoslavia si Romania) si statul national (Cehoslvacia)Intr-un moment dificil pe plan international, in care Marile Puteri din Antanta faceau presiuni asupra statelor mici, cele trei state au hotarat sa se uneasca pentru a impune respectarea tratatelor de pace. Lucrurile au fost grabite de proiectul francez de realizare a unei confederatii danubiene, dar si a incercarilor de restaurare intreprinse de Carol de Habsburg.Avand ca scop principiul egalitatii si respectarii sistemului de tratate de la Versailles, Mica Intelegere a devenit si o colaboratoare a Societatii Natiunilor, recent infiintata. Pe durata existentei sale a incercat sa ajute la mentinerea echilibrului in Europa Centrala si atragerea Poloniei in organizatie. Pe plan economic s-a incercat atragerea Austriei si Ungariei.Criza economica, dar si politica de revizuire a tratatelor dusa de statele fasciste a impus Micii Intelegeri sa recurga la masuri menite sa mentina statu-quo-ul teritorial al celor trei state. Planul Germaniei de realizare a uniunii vamale cu Austria, dar si planul Tardieu au reprezentat motive de ingrijorare pentru mica organizatie.In anul 1933, cand in Germania s-a instalat nazismul, iar actiunile revizioniste au crescut, Mica Intelegere a fost supusa unei noi organizari, in cadrul careia s-a semnat un pact cu program comun, ce avea ca obiectiv consolidarea rezistentei in fata hitlerismului si revizionismului horthyst. In perioada anilor 1933-1936, Mica Intelegere s-a integrat foarte bine in planul de securitate colectiva promovata de URSS si de Franta, determinand o apropiere de marea putere din Est.Pana la desfiintare, Mica Intelegere a luptat impreuna cu Intelegerea Balcanica pentru mentinerea pacii, respectarea noilor frontiere, decise la Versailles, si a egalitatilor si drepturilor tuturor statelor indiferent de marime, precum si pentru Societatea Natiunilor care era permanent atacata de statele fasciste.Greutatile in lupta lor s-a vazut in momentul in care Marea Britanie si Franta au trecut la o politica de concesii fata de Germania si Italia, sperand astfel sa evite un nou conflict de mare amploare. Probleme s-au creat si in interiorul organizatiei dupa ce Iugoslavia incalcase pactul, semnand tratat cu Italia si Bulgaria.Cel care a pus sfarsit acestei organizatii a fost acordul de la Munchen, care parafa impartirea Cehoslovaciei.Prin semnarea tratatului de la Trianon se recunosteau oficial toate actele nationale savarsite in anii 1918-1919.Primei probleme careia Mica Intelegere, i-a raspuns negativ a fost proiectul danubian francez care cuprindea Austria, Ungaria si cele trei state, si avea ca scop oprirea Germaniei de a inainta spre Mediterana. Grija celor trei state a fost de ordin economic, dar si teritorial, mai ales ca proiectul avantaja oarecum Ungaria. Mai mult s-a incheiat intre...

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