Micro-Level Determinants of Decision to Migrate: Evidence from Households
We made this study with the purpose to explore the determinants of migration at the micro level. For this purpose we used the household survey data from the HIES, conducted by the Federal Bureau of Statistics. For international migration, we find the Age, Human capital, wealth and household head as the important variables. For the analysis, we used the probit model as our dependent variable is binary in nature. Hopefully this study will be helpful for the researchers and policy makers.
Micro-level Determinants of Decision to Migrate: Evidence from Households
Migration is defined differently in the opinion of different scholars but properly it is defined as the move of the people from one location to other geographical place for many reasons. Migration is as old as human being itself. Migration affects all the areas of life like social, economic and political. The UN 2010 report confirmed the number of international migrant which is more than 213 million or 5% of the world population. Policy makers are also anxious about to understand the main causes of this high migration. Migration has been showing an increasing trend for twenty years. In 1990, more than 23 million people moved to the host countries from the source country. As for the more developed and less developed regions, 127711 from developed and 86232 from less developed regions respectively migrated. These figures constitute 10.3% and 1.5% respectively for more and less developed regions’ total population.
As for the south Asia, according to the Factbook 2011, 26.7 million people migrated in 2010 which is 1.6% of total population. Their concentrating countries were OECDs 23% and non OECDs high income countries as 35%. As for Pakistan, many of Pakistanis migrated to host countries and the Pakistanis migrants’ flow was 12300 in 1973 and this figure reached 110136 in 2000 and 143329 in 2005. In 2010, the Pakistani migrants’ stock constitutes a huge figure as 362,904 (Labor and Human Resource 2000-10). The migrants of Pakistan are categorized (Gazdar): Labor Migrants, Permanent Migrants, Visitors and students, Refuges etc. Similar with the Gujrat that the people have migrated can be categorized in this way. These facts and figures show a high trend from Pakistan to the rest of the world.
No doubt these migrants send remittances to their home country which is a good source of foreign reserve after the exports. These migrants send a huge amount of remittances to their households. By definition remittances are the amount sent by the migrant to their home country. According to the Factbook 2011, the worldwide remittances from these worldwide migrants were recorded as $440 billion of which the developing countries are receiving $325 billion. These remittances showed resilience during the global crisis of 2009 and they fell only 6%.
Among regions, the Middle East and North Africa...