This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Microbio Essay

1393 words - 6 pages

For many years, citizens of well-developed countries believed tuberculosis (TB) was an illness of the past. Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that can be caused by various strains of mycobacterium, primarily Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Mycobacterium tuberculosis has a waxy coating on its cell surface that makes it highly resistant to Gram staining, and consequently must be identified using Acid-fast techniques. Despite its resistance to Gram staining, Mycobacterium tuberculosis is classified as an acid-fast Gram-positive bacteria due to its lack of an outer cell membrane. Along with its resistance to stains, the cell wall has many characteristics that currently make it the center of many new studies. As some researchers struggle to understand the exact reasons for the re-emergence of tuberculosis, others are seeking new mechanisms and ways to inhibit the disease. (1)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, first discovered by Robert Koch in 1882 is an aerobic bacillus. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is naturally a pathogen of the mammalian respiratory system due to its need for an oxygen rich environment. Cell division occurs at an unusually slow pace in this species. Cell division can take anywhere from 15 to 20 hours, which is extremely sluggish in comparison to other bacteria. This bacterium requires very little water activity and can survive in a dry state for long periods of time. The lipid rich cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is responsible for the organism’s ability to withstand disinfectants and ability to act in a virulent manner.
Alveolar macrophages in the lungs take up Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but are incapable of digesting the bacterium. The cell wall of the bacterium inhibits fusion of the phagosome with a lysosome by blocking a bridging molecule known as early endosomal autoantigen 1 (EEA1). The obstruction of the bridging molecule however does not affect the ability of nutrient filled vesicles to fuse with the bacterium. This characteristic allows the bacterium to grow and multiply unchecked within a macrophage. Mycobacterium tuberculosis carries a gene that hinders the acidification of a phagosome. Micro-evolutionary variation has influenced the fitness and transmission dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. (2)
In 1998 the genome of the H37Rv strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was published. The genome consists of four million base pairs and 3,959 genes. The genome includes 250 genes that are used in the metabolism of fatty acids. Thirty-nine of the 250 genes used for the metabolism of fatty acids are responsible for the polyketide metabolism that generates the waxy coat, this suggests that the waxy coat serves an important role in pathogen survival.
Researchers have three theories as to why tuberculosis has begun to reemerge in developed countries. The first theory involves the ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to change between a dormant state and a replicative state. The bacterium can transition from...

Find Another Essay On microbio

Overview of Tuberculosis and Its Treatment

2850 words - 11 pages ). New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Pub.p.457. CDC. (2012). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Tuberculosis. (TB). http://www.cdc.gov/tb/topic/basics/default.htm Global Tuberculosis report 2013. World Health Organization. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/en/index.html Kennath-Velayudhan S., Gennaro ML. Immunodiagnostic of Tuberculosis: A Dynamic view of Biomarker Discovery. Clin Microbio. Rev

Deterioro ambiental Essay

9019 words - 36 pages o intelectual.Para llegar a esta fue necesario recorrer un largo camino. En los últimos milímetros de este camino, aparece la especie humana, una recién llegada al planeta. Pues su tiempo resulta insignificante con relación al tiempo de la tierra y más aun con referencia al tiempo cósmico. Su tamaño es el de un autentico microbio cósmico y -por consiguiente- su tiempo también.1.1 LA

When the Bubble Burst

1539 words - 6 pages By the time I arrived state side from my second tour in the Middle East the housing bubble had already burst. I noticed a drastic change in the way that many of my friends and family were living. Several of my friends that worked in real estate had sold their boats and seconds houses. My own stock portfolio had lost a third of its value. My sister and her husband had defaulted on their home mortgage leaving them scrambling for a place to live. I

phase diagram

4456 words - 18 pages Introduction: Chemical equilibrium is a crucial topic in Chemistry. To represent and model equilibrium, the thermodynamic concept of Free energy is usually used. For a multi-component system the Gibbs free energy is a function of Pressure, Temperature and quantity (mass, moles) of each component. If one of these parameters is changed, a state change to a more energetically favorable state will occur. This state has the lowest free energy

Revolutionary Work of Art

1890 words - 8 pages Walter Benjamin emphasizes in his essay, “The Work of Art in the Age of its Technological Reproducibility” that technology used to make an artwork has changed the way it was received, and its “aura”. Aura represents the originality and authenticity of a work of art that has not been reproduced. The Sistine Chapel in the Vatican is an example of a work that has been and truly a beacon of art. It has brought a benefit and enlightenment to the art

Enlightenment Thought in New Zealand Schools

1594 words - 6 pages In this essay I will be looking at how the political and intellectual ideas of the enlightenment have shaped New Zealand Education. I will also be discussing the perennial tension of local control versus central control of education, and how this has been affected by the political and intellectual ideas of the enlightenment. The enlightenment was an intellectual movement, which beginnings of were marked by the Glorious Revolution in Britain

Psychological Egoism Theory

2240 words - 9 pages The theory of psychological egoism is indeed plausible. The meaning of plausible in the context of this paper refers to the validity or the conceivability of the theory in question, to explain the nature and motivation of human behavior (Hinman, 2007). Human actions are motivated by the satisfaction obtained after completing a task that they are involved in. For example, Mother Teresa was satisfied by her benevolent actions and

How Celtic Folkore has Influenced My Family

1587 words - 6 pages Every family has a unique background that influences the way they live and interact with other people. My parents, who emigrated from Ireland to the States with my three brothers in 1989, brought over their own Celtic folklore and traditions that have helped shaped the way our family operates and lives. One aspect of folklore that has helped shape my family dynamic is the Celtic cross—both its background and what role it has played in our lives

Julia Margaret Cameron

1406 words - 6 pages At a time when women were looked upon as being homemakers, wives, mothers and such the late 1850's presented a change in pace for one woman in specific. Photography was discovered in 1826 and soon after the phenomenon of photography was being experimented with and in turn brought new and different ways of photo taking not only as documenting real time, but also conceptualizing a scene in which an image would be taken. Julia Margaret Cameron will

Evaluation of School Improvement

1403 words - 6 pages The evaluation process should be progressive to incorporate overall planning, implement changes, which contribute to success. In order to focus on school climate and norms, the evaluation design must include the students, instructions, and outcomes to improve communication and building-level concerns to be address in this response. School Climate and Social Norms The school principal, other staff leaders, and personnel set the tone and the

Case Study: The Benefits of Animal Testing

1757 words - 7 pages Nine year old Amy has already had a rough start in life. She was born with an abnormal heart that hinders her everyday activities. Amy is unable to keep up with kids her own age because she often tires out easily. As a consequence, she has very little friends and is often alone. Amy is forced to take different medications everyday just to survive. Amy’s life consists of medicine, doctors, and constant hospital visits. However, Amy is due for a

Similar Essays

The Characteristics Of Meningococcal Disease Essay

792 words - 4 pages -nm.html Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (n.d.). Meningococcal disease. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/meningococcal/ Driver, C. (2013). Meningococcal disease: diagnosis and prevention. Primary Health Care, 23(2), 32-37. World Health Organization (n.d). Meningococcal disease. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/csr/disease/meningococcal/en/ Peterson, K. (n.d.). Meningococcal meningitis. Retrieved from http://www.austincc.edu/microbio/2704w/nm.htm Wilcox, A. (2011). Meningococcal B disease: past, present and future. Practice Nursing, 22(12), 650-653.

Real Textile And Domestic Wastewater Treatment By Novel Cross Linked Microbial Fuel Cell (Cmfc) Reactor

1482 words - 6 pages enrichment cultures. Appl. Microbio. Biotechnol. 1999; 51 (6): 865-871. [13] Hao OJ, Kim H, Chiang PC. Decolorization of wastewater (Critical review). Environ. Sci. Technol. 2000; 30: 449-505. [14] Perey JR, Chiu PC, Haung CP, Cha DK. Zero-valent iron pretreatment for enhancing the biodegradability of azo dyes. Water Environ. Res. 2002; 74(3): 221-225. [15] Sponza DT, Isik M. Decolorization and azo dye degradation by anaerobic/aerobic sequential

Public Health Problems: Ebola Virus Essay

1742 words - 7 pages . Available from: Academic Search Complete, Ipswich, MA. Accessed May 13, 2014. http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=e4bbd56a-3a0a-4391-a9b1-7e7aaa29bd5a%40sessionmgr4002&vid=4&hid=4204 Pozos, Joshua. "Ebola." Ebola. N.p., 2008. Web. 15 May 2014.http://www.austincc.edu/microbio/2704w/ev.htm William P. Cunningham . Ed. Marci Bortman, Peter Brimblecombe, and Mary Ann Cunningham . Vol. 1. 3rd ed. Detroit: Gale, 2003. http

India: Removal Of Toluene From The Air

2066 words - 8 pages . 2. Anil K. Mathur., Majumder, C.B., 2008. Biofiltration and kinetic aspects of a biotricking filter for the removal of paint solvent mixture laden air stream. J. Hazard. Mater. 152, 1027-1036. Appl. Environ. Microbio. 67(3)1030-1034 3. Aydin Berenjian., Ali Fathi., Saman Feghenabi., Anvar Khodiev., 2011. Complete removal of toluene from air: a response surface methodology; Australian Journal Of Basic And Applied Sciences. 5(6) 286-288. 4. Barona