Microorganisms started life on Earth billions of years ago. They started the Biosphere from the formation of photosynthesis by bacterial creating an oxygen atmosphere that helped plants and animals to develop. Microbes are usually unicellular and cannot be seen by the naked eye. Without microorganism, nothing would be supported and maintained on Earth in nature and life. Microbes help keep nature’s water and soil clean by removing toxins and degrade organic matter in a form of recycling from dead animals and plants (Anon., 2014).
Species of Microorganisms can survive in different types of habitats like; any pH range (like extreme acid to extreme alkaline), growth in temperature (like hot environment of 144C to cold environments -15C), salinity range (like fresh water to sodium chloride saturation) (Mahony, 2009). Microbes have evolved into a great number of mechanisms to digest food, reproduce and finds energy. For agriculture, medicine, warfare and energy production, scientists uses these skills to create them (Noel, n.d.).
Microbe play an important part on earth ecosystems composing of oxygen, carbon and nitrogen. They can be beneficial or hazardous to nature and in Biotechnology processes.
The Importance in Nature of Microorganisms
How Microorganisms function for Nature
Microorganisms are important in nature as they consists of elements such as Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen , Nitrogen etc. to produce living material. Nutrients from these elements are important to different types of organisms. Microorganisms primary elements; Carbon, Oxygen and Nitrogen helps the earths ability to recycle the makeup of all living systems (Kenneth Todar, 2012).
Photosynthetic organisms are involved in primary production. It converts CO2 in the atmosphere to organic material causing the process CO2 fixation. This accounts to the large section of organic carbon vacant for synthesis of cell material. The primary producers (mainly terrestrial plants) like planktonic algae and cyanobacteria uses their unicellular organisms to float in the ocean (like grass in the sea) using their source of carbon that is derived from marine life.
Is broken down of complex organic material to create carbon to be used by other organisms. Nearly every organic compound can be degraded by some microbe except synthetic compounds (Teflon, Plastics, Pesticides, Insecticides and Styrofoam are degraded slowly or not at all). Fermentation and respiration uses these metabolic process on organic molecules to be broken down to CO2 to be brought back to the atmosphere.
In some bacteria, nitrogen fixation removes N2 from the atmosphere and converts into NH3 to be used by plants and animals. This replenishes the soils nitrogen for the removal of the agricultural process. Other bacteria fixes the nitrogen for the symbiotic associations in plants. As for other “nitrogen fixing bacteria” are free-living in aquatic and soil...