1) Statecraft and the unity of state and religion
The fact that three quarters of the Koran is focused on civil procedure makes us appreciate how important establishing the state was to Muhammad. He embedded in these procedures in the Koran because he wanted no separation between religion and state. For good reason, having no split between these two facets leaves no gray area of rule that conforms to one system and not the other. He did not want the loyalties of his people to clash between their faith and their government. This achievement originated through the Koran’s integration of scriptures and civil guidelines.
2) Absence of Clergy
The absence of clergy within the Islamic faith is attributed to three causes.
§ In the early days of Islam, Muhammad would preach in the holy city of Mecca. During this time, Mecca was filled with Christians, Jews, and Pagans. The Christian and Jewish clergymen would mock Muhammad day and night; they discouraged and embarrassed him with hopes to break his will. Its safe to assume that from the start, Muhammad has a negative feel towards clergyman.
§ Islamic faith is the much more self-serving than any of the other major religions. You convert yourself, marry yourself, & pray yourself. Muhammad did not feel it was essential or even necessary to institute a higher authority in the place of worship.
§ Before Muhammad become The Prophet, he was very established, and greatly successful as a businessman. And his business intellect led him to the conclusion that it would be a waste of funds to setup a higher authority in the mosques. After all if he were to succeed at spreading Islamic influence into the Persian and Arabian Empires, he would need all the funds he could get.
3) Law Issues
a. Legal procedures
The Islamic judicial system has somewhat a resemblance to the American judicial system. The greatest similarity is the practice that a person is innocent until proven guilty. Another likeness is the practice of Habeas Corpus. This provides that no person shall be held against his or her will without being formally charged with a crime. However, a major difference in regards to legal procedure between our two cultures is the absence of lawyers. In Islamic legal proceedings, an alleged criminal is not granted the use of an attorney. If a Writ of Amicus Curen is established, the defendant deems themselves unable to comprehend the accusations brought upon them, and unable to adequately defend themselves. In this case a third party can be brought in to take the case.
Certain charges require eyewitness accounts to convict on. For example, if a man was on trial for adultery, it would take a testimony of four men or eight women to prove guilt. A women eyewitness counts half of that as a man eyewitness. This...