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Migration As A Cause And Consequence Of Conflict

1200 words - 5 pages

Rwanda and DRCongo are two examples of conflicts that were causes of conflict-induced, forced migration.Conflict-induced displacement, a type of forced migration, is when people are forced to leave their region, because of violence, armed conflict, and/or discrimination of religion, race, social group or political opinion. Both of the countries mentioned have similarities and differences between the causes of unrest, and the long term and short term causes of the conflict.

The Democratic Republic of the Congo, short DR Congo or DRC, is a country situated in Central Africa with a long history of civil unrest. The official language is French, it is supposed to be an ethnically neutral ...view middle of the document...

After the former Zaire gained independence the remaining Europeans fled the country. This gave the Congolese the opportunity to replace European administrative elite and military. The DRCongo, however, wasn’t the only Central African nation affected by the Belgian colonization. Rwanda, a country west from DR Congo, was colonized by Germany and Belgium since the Berlin Conference in 1884. After the second world war Rwanda was still ruled by Belgium as an UN Trust Territory. The country gained independence in 1962. The long term cause of civil unrest in Rwanda were the conflicts between the two major ethnic groups, the Hutus and the Tutsis. 80% of the Rwandan population are Hutus, however, the Tutsis who only only make up 15% of the population, were preferred by their European colonizers. One of the short term causes of the conflict was the slumping economy and food shortages, due to bad weather throughout the year. For 600 years the Hutus,traditionally crop growers, and the Tutsis, traditionally herdsmen, were actually working together as it was essential for their survival. The conflicts began when European colonization started. The Belgian and German colonists privileged the Tutsis as they were tall landowners and, in the eyes of the Europeans, looked more aristocratic in appearance. The colonists considered the Hutu and Tutsi as different races. Those differences were made even clearer when everyone got an identity card, labelling them Hutu, Tutsi, Twa(another ethnic group making up 1% of the population) or Naturalised. By that a deep wedge was driven between the two groups as your wealthiness didn’t matter, only your “nationality”. Before the new ID cards were introduced Hutus with enough money had the opportunity to become an honorary Tutsi, this wasn’t possible anymore. This long term cause ended in the definite division between the two ethnic groups and the civil war that followed. Even to this day both countries have conflicts going on between the different ethnic groups.

As mentioned before the two countries have similarities such as the Belgian colonization but there are also differences between the causes of unrest in each country. Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of Congo were both assigned to Belgium during the 1884-1885 Berlin Conference. They also both gained independence around the same time, DRC on June 30, 1960 and Rwanda on July 1, 1962. One of the causes of civil unrest in DR Congo was the brutality of King Leopold II’s ways to get the rubber in the Central African country. During 1805-1908 millions of Congolese died as ...

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