Migration In Southeast Asia Essay

1459 words - 6 pages

Southeast Asia is certainly a region on the move. Internal and international migration flows are a key feature in this geographical setting. On the one hand, Southeast Asia is home of important work-related migration flows to other countries in the region which are demanding labour but also to international immigration areas, such as North America, the European Union and the Persian Gulf. On the other hand, Southeast Asia also attracts immigration, mostly intraregional. Intraregional migration is usually temporary and irregular, which has meant a major challenge for governments to manage migration in their territories.
In addition to the countries of origin and destination, some Asian ...view middle of the document...

These flows have been characterised by their feminisation since the 1970s meaning that the traditionally male-dominated labour migration context has changed. This situation has brought to surface new issues affecting women due to their vulnerability, as for example trafficking.
Transnational migration
It is reported that the destination of migrant workers has changed. In the late 1970s, the Middle East, especially the Gulf states, was the main destination. However, from the 1990s the amount of migrant workers migrating to neighbouring countries in Southeast Asia has increased (Kull, personal communication, March 4, 2014). A new trend has also been noted, namely for migrants to stay longer than before in the recipient countries. The rapid increase in the number of migrants and the diversity of countries of origin make it difficult to implement policies, which leads to the migrants vulnerability. The different jobs carried out by the migrants categorise them in different groups.
First, domestic work can be highlighted as the most critical type in relation to the feminisation of migration. This is proved by statistics from 2000 to 2003, which shows that 65% of the Filipino migrants were women, while in Indonesia the percentage was 79%. Asia is the continent with the highest number of migrant women "exports" for domestic work. Indonesia, Philippines and Sri Lanka are the main countries of origin of these women. While it is true that many of them are low-skilled workers, the fact is that even when they are qualified, as with many Filipino university-educated, their occupations are still associated with domestic care. Women working in the domestic sphere are more vulnerable as they are normally isolated in private homes and excluded from Employment Acts. As Resurreccion explains (in Devasahayam, 2009, p. 38) "they have very little and arbitrary labour rights, and often depend on the goodwill of their employers".


The professional care and welfare sector is increasingly important for female migration in the transnational sphere. Resurreccion (ibid) notes that the Philippines is currently supplying the majority of nurses working in countries such as the United Kingdom, Ireland, Canada and the United States. Data from 2008 shows that around 3000 Filipino teachers have also joined English teaching programmes in Thai schools.
Those belonging to the professional care and welfare sector enjoy better working conditions than domestic workers or those working for the entertainment and sex industry. In the case of sex workers, the situation is specially critical when it comes to vulnerability. Resurreccion (in Devasahayam, 2009, p. 41) notes that they are subject to exploitation and extortion. These groups face what Ball and Piper (2006, p. 219) define as 'structural vulnerability' meaning that these migrants are not citizens in the host country which denies them in many cases the right to claim for legal, economic or social protection. Is resilience...

Find Another Essay On Migration in Southeast Asia

Medical Tourism in Southeast Asia Essay

1771 words - 7 pages has become a key economic strategy in these two countries. Malaysia and Thailand have also become main medical hubs in the region, attracting patients from within and outside Southeast Asia. The Birth of Medical Tourism Before the east Asian financial crisis in 1997-1998 was a time of economic growth in Southeast Asia. The middle class with high education attainment was expanding, living mainly in large cities. These people put significant

Dutch Colonization in Southeast Asia Essay

802 words - 4 pages The Dutch’s appearance in Southeast Asia was predominantly a two-stage colonization process. The initial stage of this expansion period arose in 1602 with the charter of the Dutch East India Company. The VOC (Dutch East India Trading Company) had been formed by the State-General of the Netherlands to carry out, for a granted 21-year monopolistic control, colonial expansion privileges representing the Dutch in South East Asia. While at first

Independence Struggles in Southeast Asia

2418 words - 10 pages which conceived of it as a stronghold against the increasing Soviet influence in Southeast Asia. In essence, this backing gave Indonesia a carte blanche and ensured it could do what it saw fit, like the incorporation of Papua. On the contrary, Indonesia in the late 1990s was a nation in distress, hit hard by the 1997 Asian financial crisis. Suharto’s relative popular support that he maintained through emphasizing Indonesia’s strong economic

Deforestation Rate in Southeast Asia

1544 words - 6 pages lowland forest trees species bears borad leaves, on the other hand montane forest are dominated by lean trees with small leaves. The third unique difference is occurrence of epiphythe. (Smith and Smith, 2003) Deforestation rate in Southeast Asia is one of the highest globally. It is a primary threat to loss of biodiversity. Most of exploitations are focused on lowland due to ease of access compare to its counterpart montane forest. Besides

The Legacy of Imperialism in Southeast Asia

1062 words - 4 pages The Legacy of Imperialism in Southeast Asia Imagine a tropical island paradise isolated from external influence or interference, with limited localized conflicts. Then a fleet of dark ships sail up to the golden beaches and land. These ships are filled with Europeans, who wish to take over this land for its strategic location and the plentiful natural resources that exist on the majestic lands of Southeast Asia. This straightforward scene

Child Sex Trafficking in Southeast Asia

1608 words - 6 pages Child Sex Trafficking in Southeast Asia The world today faces many problems that are being combated by many organizations, yet there are broad ranges of challenges that are waiting to be fixed up but the efforts are not producing great results. One such problem human trafficking has been affecting many lives through years but through recent decades human trafficking both sexually and labor exploitation have risen drastically. Especially, in

Child Sex Trafficking in Southeast Asia

1001 words - 4 pages In poverty stricken Southeast Asia, every day children become trapped into the prostitution industry. Strangers or even close family members and friends deceive children into sex trade. Once trapped, chances of escape are low. With the sex industry growing and thriving, countries in Southeast Asia continue to tolerate the retail of children for sex acts. The origin of the sex industry is not exact, but the demand for women sold as sex slaves

Singapore an Island in Southeast Asia

1476 words - 6 pages , government structure, strategic importance, and the future direction of Singapore. Background Information Singapore is an island located in Southeast Asia, and founded by the British East India Company in 1819. Singapore started as a British colony, joined the Malaysian Federation, and became independent in 1963. The island has a population of approximately 4.7 million people, and is located at narrow point of the Straits of Malacca off

Hinduism and Buddhism’s Influence of Indian Culture in Southeast Asia

2232 words - 9 pages The way Hinduism and Buddhism entered Southeast Asia was not the same, as well as when it entered and its influence of Indian culture that emerged into the area. Civilizations in Southeast Asia focused on an appreciation to nature, which resulted in a harmonious and equal relationship between man and nature. Southeast Asia had been depicted and known as the “golden island.” These Southeast Asian civilizations were characteristically composed

The Spread of Hinduism and Buddhism in Southeast Asia

1757 words - 7 pages and agricultural laborers, Shudras, who are artisans and other providers of service, then we get to the lowest caste, which are the Periahs, also known as the untouchables who cannot look other in the eye and take janitorial jobs and other jobs dealing with filth and death (Miksic, pg 6). Buddhism was adopted and adapted to in Southeast Asia in various different methods, starting with those of the Tibetans, who developed their own form of

The December 26, 2004 Tsunami in Southeast Asia

1296 words - 5 pages On Sunday December 26, 2004 at 6:58:50 a.m. local time, the tsunami earthquake hit land in Southeast Asia and caused a massive amount of death and destruction. This 9.3 scale earthquake was the biggest and most dangerous to ever hit since the 9.5 scale earthquake on May 22,1960 in Chile. Earthquakes of this magnitude happen only every thirty to forty years. "Almost two months after the Indian Ocean tsunamis, which killed more than 250,000 people

Similar Essays

Headhunting In Southeast Asia Essay

1199 words - 5 pages taken their first head. In Indonesia, Wona Kaka, a famous leader that led rebellions against the Dutch, an important headhunter, was recognized as a hero by the national government. There were even many rituals to bring back his soul from the dead. In Southeast Asia, the practices of headhunting have a relationship to the society’s perception of itself as a powerful agency. It was an important part of the society because they believed the human

Imperialism In Southeast Asia Essay

1462 words - 6 pages Imperialism in Southeast Asia A. In the late 1400s & early 1500s, European traders explored the East Indies 1. In the seaports of these islands & on the nearby mainland a) Portuguese & Dutch merchants enjoyed a rich & active trade until the early 1800s. B. In the 1800s and early 1900s, European imperialism made its way to Southeast Asia as it did to nearby India & China 1. The area became an important source not only of

Migration In Central Asia Essay

1727 words - 7 pages . “Migration Processes in Central Asia:
Main Directions and Key Issues of Regional System.” Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 15(11): 1505-1510. doi:10.5829/idosi.mejsr.2013.15.11.11580. Gubka, Milan. 2011. “Implementation of the Human Security Concept into Central Asia's Regional Policy.” Paper presented on the annual conference on Globalization In the Scale of Globalization. Think Globally, Act Locally, Change Individually, University of

Population Control In Southeast Asia Essay

545 words - 2 pages 'acceptable' whereas forth-two voted that it was 'unacceptable to some extent', and sixty-eight declared it to be 'highly unacceptable'. Furthermore, two-thirds of the countries wanted to slow the rate of rural-urban migration, and a further 12 per cent wanted to reverse it.Although we have a fairly clear picture of recent trends in population growth in most of the countries in Southeast Asia the picture is based primarily on data collected in censuses