ICMM (International Council on mining and metals) has conducted ten case studies of “mining countries” and with better methodology to have better understanding and assessment, they found out that mining may contribute to national economies. According to (ICMM, 2010) mining may help to reduce poverty and indirectly induce employment. From mining too, it helps to increase government revenue to help increase development of the country.
Mining project starts with mineral ore exploitation and ends with post-closure period. Generally, each phase of its activity is influenced and associated with different environmental impacts. The first phase of mining is start with exploratory phase. During this phase, surveys are made and that include field studies and drilling test borehole and other exploratory excavations. Vegetation is cleared out so that large vehicles are allowed to enter.
Roads need to be constructed so that heavy equipment and supplies are easily transported to the mine site. The ore deposit extends in a very deep ground so it is necessary to remove layer by layer. If large enough mineral ores are deposited, with sufficient grade on the site, the project is to start with the plan but there are several components are to be made. This phase is the Development Phase.
When access roads are constructed and staging areas are prepared, mining can take place. All Mining is correlated with extracting metals from the earth but the proposed mining project may differ in terms of extracting method. Ore deposits at depth underground hence a pit is created to extend below the underground table so groundwater is pumped out to allow active mining phase.
During extracting metal takes place, the ‘overburden’ or waste rocks are removed to access to the metallic ore. These wastes sometimes, contain high level of toxic substances and usually are deposited on-site and specialized heavy equipment and machinery are used to extract metals once the overburden of waste rocks are removed.
In Beneficiation phase, that is, small quantities of metals are separated from non-metallic ore. Metallic ores contain elevated levels of metals but they generate very large quantities waste called tailings. When active mining ceases, the mining sites are closed. This is the last phase of mining activity, the post-closure period. The objective of site...