Misconception Of Cloning Human Beings Essay

1604 words - 6 pages

Human Cloning: A Significant Misconception When a lamb called Dolly cloned successfully in Scotland was introduced on February 24, 1997, a Time/CNN poll conducted a few days after the announcement discovered that 93% of Americans disapproved of cloning humans (qtd. in Seelye A5). The main reason was that they felt cloning as a production of identical humans and so were feared by its result. However, if you think so, you have seriously misconceived human cloning like them, therefore, it is important to let all of you know why and how you misconceive human cloning for allying your fear and finding a possible way to tackle this issue.In thinking about the misconceptions of cloning humans, it is also necessary to clear the ground a little, therefore, it is better to define on cloning and introduce its history briefly first.The word ¡§clone¡¨ comes from a Greek meaning ¡§twig¡¨: taking a cut from a plant (Kass and Wilson 6). John Harris mentions a clone is made up of groups of identical structures containing genetic materials such as mitochondria and chloroplasts and it also refers to at a group of organisms that are genetically identical (9).As for the word ¡§cloning¡¨, it is a process. Cohen and Tomkin state cloning, in its modern usage, is loosely used to mean asexual reproduction of any kind (193). When applied to humans, cloning is divided into two processes. The first is known as ¡§twining¡¨. According to Leon R. Kass and James Q. Wilson, this is a process similar to what happens in utero when a fertilized egg splitting into two or more embryos forms identical twins (ix-xi). Twining occurs when the cells of an embryo are removed and allowed to develop to produce twins of the original embryo. In addition, the second is termed as ¡§nuclear transplantation¡¨. Jones states it means taking the nucleus of a cell from the body of an adult and transferring it to an unfertilized egg, destroying the genome of the oocyte of the egg, and letting it develop (qtd. in Humber and Almeder 7). Moreover, using twinning, we can clone some single celled-organisms such as algae and simple plants and using nuclear transfer, we can clone sheep, monkeys, cows and mice as their cells are more complicated (Lee M. Silver 93-101).In addition, the history of cloning can be divided into three periods: before 1000BC, 1000BC-1995 and after 1995. Before 1000BC, it served as the origin of cloning concept. John Harris states early humans discovered that if they planted seeds produced by the heartiest plants, the next crop would be a strong one that was the earliest forms of genetic engineering (15). As for the period of 1000BC-1995, John Harris claims that there were lots of experiments trying to clone organisms but failed. In 1952 and 1962, some experiments happened to clone tadpoles and fogs respectively, however, the success rate was just 2%. In 1977, mice were cloned but...

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