The Base Of Mitochondrial Diseases Essay

1190 words - 5 pages

In a single cell there are large numbers of organelles known as mitochondria. These organelles are spherical with a double-membrane, the outer mitochondrial membrane and the inner mitochondrial membrane (Chial). The majority of energy and power for the body’s cells, more than 90% of what is required to preserve life and encourage growth, originates from these organelles in the form of the molecule adenosine triphosphate (Kurt 11; “What”). This energy production process is termed oxidative phosphorylation because it occurs in the presence of oxygen (Sirrs). If there is a fault in this assembling of energy within the mitochondria, it is known as a mitochondrial disease. Usually the organs affected by these diseases are those that require larger amounts of energy, such as the heart, brain, muscle, and liver (Kurt 11). When this process of mitochondrial disease occurs throughout the body, it can effect entire body systems and lead to possible death (“What”). However, adenosine triphosphate production is only one function of the mitochondria. Most of the roles of mitochondria depend upon the location of the cell in which they occupy and the cell’s functions. As a human develops from fetus to adult the functions of these mitochondria change and develop as well. Most of these jobs of the mitochondria are majorly engaged in anabolism “molecular building blocks” and catabolism of fats, proteins, carbohydrates, and etcetera. For example, cells cannot even form RNA and DNA without the help of mitochondria because they require purines and pyrimidines formed within the organelle. Also, mitochondria withhold the “rate-limiting enzymes” needed for pyrimidine biosynthesis and heme synthesis necessary in hemoglobin production. Some other distinguished functions of mitochondria include detoxifying ammonia in the urea cycle, cholesterol metabolism, estrogen and testosterone synthesis, free radical production and detoxification, and neurotransmitter metabolism (“What”). In this paper, the following will be discussed: the causes and types of mitochondrial disease; symptoms and diagnosis of different mitochondrial diseases; and the treatment and management of the diseases.
Within each mitochondrion there are many replicas of the mitochondrial genome. There is a “heterogeneous population of mitochondrial DNA within the same cell, and even within the same mitochondrion; as a result, mitochondria are considered to be heteroplasmic.” When a cell divides, its mitochondria are divided among the two daughter cells, but the mitochondria are distributed arbitrarily. Compared to nuclear chromosome division, this mitochondria separation is far less methodized and much more haphazard causing the daughter cells to only receive copies of their mitochondrial DNA that are closely related but not indistinguishable between one another. All of this is also affected by the fact that the mitochondrial genome has a much higher “mutation rate” than that of the nuclear genome. There is a...

Find Another Essay On The Base of Mitochondrial Diseases

The Economics of Department of Defense Base Closures

791 words - 3 pages The Economics of Department of Defense Base ClosuresIn its most basic element, economist David Colander explains that economics considers how producers and consumers use scarce resources in an attempt to satisfy their unlimited wants (Colander, 2004). Throughout the past decade, and most recently with the announcement of the Efficient Facilities Initiative (EFI), the Defense Department has forged ahead with a plan to complete multiple rounds of

The Economics of Department of Defense Base Closures

824 words - 3 pages Internet Article Review:The Economics of Department of Defense Base ClosuresIn its most basic element, economist David Colander explains that economics examines how producers and consumers use scarce resources in an attempt to satisfy their unlimited wants (Colander, 2004). Over the past decade, and most recently with the announcement of the Efficient Facilities Initiative, the Department of Defense has forged ahead with a plan to complete

The Underlying Genetic Cause of Prion Diseases

2740 words - 11 pages The human genome contains millions of base pairs that are successfully transcribed and translated to yield the gene products necessary for life. On occasion the protein products of translation face mutations that make them lethal to the human condition. In the past decade prion diseases have become more prominent in civilian life like mad cow disease in cattle, kuru in humans, and scrapie in sheep (Araújo, 2013). Prions are proteins that

The Rise of Antibiotic Resistant Diseases

1669 words - 7 pages they spread. DOTS will help prevent antibiotic resistant strains from developing, and when they do, DOTS Plus will ensure that stain does not spread. The steps the WHO are taking with tuberculosis are just one example of steps that are being taken to slow down antibiotic resistance. Overuse of antibiotics is not the only reason for antibiotic resistant strains of diseases. Another cause comes from the use of antibiotics in animal feed. Farmers

Diseases as a Reflection of the Psyche

649 words - 3 pages DISEASES AS A REFLECTION OF THE PSYCHEWanting to know whether or not the human brain hasthe power to cure the body of illness, I set out tofind an article with some cold hard facts. Thisarticle, written by Marcia Angell, Ph.D., elaborates onthe subject of the connection between mental state anddisease.The belief that there is a connection betweenmental and physical health is apparent in the article.It signifies that if a person is in a positive

The Discovery of Vaccines Prevented The Spread of Infectious Diseases

1584 words - 6 pages The discovery of vaccines prevented the spread of infectious diseases around the world. Vaccines control the spread of diseases such as measles, tuberculosis, smallpox, and the flu. In addition, vaccines increase the overall health of not only individuals, but of populations. Although these benefits prove effective on the world wide scale, the requirement of vaccinations of children to enter the public school system remains a current public

Common Features of Some of the World's Deadliest Diseases

2469 words - 10 pages There are a number of diseases that are considered significant public health hazards; they include cholera, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and influenza, as well as a number of neglected tropical diseases (NTD). These diseases have caused and continue to cause countless deaths globally. To better understand why these diseases are of such significant we must consider some common features, including both the scientific biological factors and nonbiological

Effects of Third World Diseases on the US

827 words - 3 pages After reading The Coming Anarchy by Robert D. Kaplan and asked to decide which of the issues facing the West Africans would affect the United States the most, many issues swarm through my head. Deforestation, crime, desertification, and polygamy just to name a few. But the diseases that constantly plague third world countries, such as Rwanda, Uganda, and Sierra Leone, seems to me to be the most devastating issue and will have the most impact

Link Between Smoking and the Ocurrence of Cardiovascular Diseases

1794 words - 7 pages Introduction Majority of people associate cigarette smoking and tobacco with lung cancer and breathing problems. However, in addition to these, smoking is a major cause of cardiovascular disease that is, blood vessel and heart diseases. Tobacco and cigarette smoking have been regarded as major risk factors for different chronic diseases Everett (2004). According to AHA (American Heart Association) cigarette smoking is seen as the most

The Effect of Exotic Diseases Josh de Salles

2880 words - 12 pages Exotic diseases are one of the greatest threats to humanity. In a world where so many things are overlooked, diseases and epidemics are clearly overlooked and underestimated far more than any threat of nuclear war, global warming, or any comet headed for earth. Throughout history epidemics have plagued the earth several times resulting in a devastating number of deaths. In this new millennium, many new and old diseases await humanity. What the

Biology...defenses of the body against bacteria, diseases...etc.

840 words - 3 pages directed against that specific pathogen.The ability of killer T cells and B cells to distinguish cells of your own body from foreign cells is crucial to the fight against pathogens. In autoimmune diseases, this ability breaks down, causing the body to attack its own cells. Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease that usually strikes people between the ages of 20 and 40. In multiple sclerosis, the immune system attacks and destroys the sheath of

Similar Essays

The Diseases Of Hunger. Essay

561 words - 2 pages Diseases that affect humans are many times categorized into either a male disease or a female disease. In other words, the public views the disease as being usually carried by males or by females. Anorexia and bulimia are almost always classified as a disease that affects mostly females. These diseases may also be classified into different categories depending on what their cause is thought to be. Maggie Helwig, author of the short story "Hunger

Base Of The Pyramid In Latin America

4102 words - 16 pages address low-income consumers´ problems. © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of the Asia Pacific Business Innovation and Technology Management Society (APBITM)." Keywords: bottom of the pyramid; base of the pyramid; latin america, innovation 1. Objective and Methodology The objective of this article is to find, through theoretical and qualitative research, common factors on their

The Decline Of Infectious Diseases Essay

1393 words - 6 pages In the 1960s, doctors in the United States predicted that infectious diseases were in decline. US surgeon Dr. William H. Stewart told the nation that it had already seen most of the frontiers in the field of contagious disease. Epidemiology seemed destined to become a scientific backwater (Karlen 1995, 3). Although people thought that this particular field was gradually dying, it wasn’t. A lot more of it was destined to come. By the late 1980s

Rfl Ps Of The Mitochondrial Gene Coi: A Strategy To Identify Specimens Of Hawksbill Turtles Eretmochelys Imbricata (Cheloniidae

590 words - 2 pages trade in specimens of E. imbricata and the use of derivatives. Materials and Methods We used blood samples from 15 juvenile hawksbill turtle from the island of St. Martin de Pajarales (Colombian Caribbean) (Fig. 2). Total DNA was extracted and amplified by PCR the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI). The amplified fragments were analyzed by RFLP using the restriction enzyme AluI. Then compared in silico with the COI gene