Modernization Essay

2466 words - 10 pages

In this paper I am going to start my argument since both Amanullah Khan and Ataturk seized the power. What they inherited that facilitated their reforms execution, how they made their reforms, how was the culture for the new reforms. How did the reforms benefit and endanger the people and who were most suffering in the reforms. How the territory, foreign policy, and the personality of these leaders affected their reforms.
Amanullha Khan became the King after his father assassination in 1919, who was very eager to have a modernized state in Afghanistan. First let see that how this country conditions was before his new reforms. As Afghanistan was established in 1747, it was a good chance for ...view middle of the document...

There were no factors of economic development such as factories, professional institutions, transportation system, banks, own currency, telegraph, trade universities and other industrializations so Amanullah Khan needed to build economy from beginning for country in order to be not dependent of foreigners. If Afghanistan had some of the economic development that would much helped him to succeed in his reforms execution without that much opposition from people because he needed money for his reform from inside.
Amanullah Khan did not heir a centralized political system which was very important for a modern state. Amanullah father did not have control over the whole country so people were autonomous. Amanullah khan inherited a Swiss chess state, where there was strong group feeling among people because of this Swiss chess. (Thomas, 2010) State was not able to serve its all citizens demands, have control over all country, there was no specialized political system that would perform state’s political functions properly and state was not supported by people. So in that time Afghanistan was not a modern state rather than a traditional state only interested in controlling the trade routes and fertile land. In regard to James political development, this country had nothing that would help Amanullah Khan to reach his vision. According to Tilly Charles Afghanistan was pre-modern state, there were small villages controlled not by single power, the layers of authority was overlapping such king, Arbab, Malik, Khan, tribal leader and clergy. In addition, Afghanistan was micro societies and many ethnic groups state. Moreover, the two elements that are important for modern state demarcated land and bureaucracy was not there yet in Afghanistan. Furthermore, Afghanistan was also not fully independent state in that time; so building all these were not easy job with a weak economy as we studied that modern state emerged in Europe with industrialization, when there were more income for state and technology that facilitated the ways for creation of modern state. People were not accustomed even a little to economical and political activities that Amanullah khan wanted to implement through his new reforms because they were not living in sedentary civilization. In overall, Amanullah did not receive any political and social phenomena that would help him in order to achieve his vision for Afghanistan. In my point of view, Afghanistan was not a modern state in that time and it was in pre-modern state or traditional conditions, he first needed to build a modern state then bring that wide scale development.
Ataturk captured the power after World War I when the Ottoman Empire was defeated. Ottoman Empire was one of the largest powers in 20th century that was mainly controlled by Turks and its capital was Istanbul. Ottoman Empire was founded by Turks tribes in 14th century; it was very successful in state making during its foundation and ruled Turkey Territory for 5 centuries...

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