Department of Political Science and Humanities
The Final Research Paper
December 4th, 2013
State Building and Political Development
Kohistani ID# 8709
State Building (POL-335)-Sections One
The 2013 Fall Semester
Modernization in Afghanistan vs. India
The political scientists, economists, philosophers, and other scientists have different views and ideas about development and modernization such as, Adam Smith, Karl Marx, Lenin, Baron, and Frank are the different scientist that introduced development theory. Similarly, this paper offers a discussion of modernization theory between two Asian countries; which is Afghanistan modern era during king Amanullah khan and India in the colonial power by British. I want to elaborate their reform toward modernization, that how they completed their reforms, what were the advantages and dis advantages of these reforms. How the reforms did were benefit for the people and both countries transformed modernization politically, economically, socially, and technologically. However, according to the modernization theory in these two countries was not happened by same factors, both have deferent ideology, deferent views, and deferent strategies.
Afghanistan is a mountain country which is located in central Asia and established in 1747 by Ahmad Shad Baba. He mostly interested to form an empire and a macro society from different ethnic tribes, but he did not established legal institutions and strong government with strong army he use his personalized skill and he mainly rely on the resources and booties of India because he did not collect taxes from the people. After his death Temur Shah and his sons came to power but the internal conflict, polygamy and external aggregation began in Afghanistan which it lead to the end of Durani Empire and every provinces become autonomous. Since Ahmad Shah Durany Afghanistan had an empire and provincial kingdom until King Abdur Rahman Khan Era; he created a strong central state and wanted to monopolize the state power over afghan people. But during King Abdur Rahman Khan Afghanistan become a renter state that also, modernization emerged as a result of conflict between two major power British and Russia which they used Afghanistan as buffer zone. According to the Charles Tilly’s theory of War Making and State Making as Organized crime which modernization was not occurred in Afghanistan same as European countries by using four phases of state making toward development and modernization which are war making, state making, protection, and extraction (Tilly, 1985). Additionally, there are two major elements for modern state to determine its sovereignty and bureaucracy which was not in Afghanistan because, did not have fully independence also, with a weak economy and Afghanistan was using as Swiss chess model government that the state...