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Modernization: Afghanistan Vs. Turkey Essay

2462 words - 10 pages

Afghanistan was used as a buffer zone during the Great Game by Soviet Union and the Great Britain. They did not provide Afghanistan with the means to industrialize and that is why Afghanistan remains subsistence agriculture and a reinter state. With the decline of Colonialism after the Third Angola-Afghan war Afghanistan declared Independent (Barfield). When Amanullah Khan seized the throne he was very enthusiastic to develop a strong and modern state. Before Amanullah Khan only some effort had been taken place for state building according to Charles Tilly which was exterminating the internal rival, during the reign of Amir Abdul Rahman Khan, he centralized the power. The trepidation that exists among most of the Afghans leader particularly Abdul Rahman Khan, he was afraid of modernizing the country and did not build railroad because he was assuming that once we build rail road it will open the gates for invasion by super power. And because of territorial integrity Abdul Rahman khan disregarded British direct involvement in building infrastructure. Instead, Abdul Rahman Khan primarily relied on subsidiaries which as a result Afghanistan remain “reinter state” (Barfied, 2010). As Tilly argues attributes of state building worked in Europe was because of industrialization prop up by capitalism. The state became powerful in bringing the producers under its supervision. Charles Tilly argues, war formulates state and duress exploitation played a vital part in the establishment of the European states. In addition, Tilly makes it very lucid that in Europe, state making and mercantile capitalism reinforced each other (Tilly 1985). By this, he means the four main aspects of state building: state making, war making, extraction and protection which worked in Europe (Tilly, 1985).

Amanullah Khan instantaneously jumped on to the well intentioned, nonetheless hasty, path to the reform and modernization of Afghanistan. Amanullah was very much influenced by European modernism and particularly by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk of turkey and the process of modernization that he had undertaken. Nevertheless, Mahmud Tarzi can also be credited for the persuasion. He launches the first newspaper, Seraj ul-akhbar in Afghanistan in year 1911. When he was in exile, Mahmud Tarzi was a bureaucrat in Damascus which was part of Ottoman Empire and had contact with European modernism. Amanullah assumed that European power raise out of the West’s industrial, cultural, economic, and technical growth and achievements, and not merely through military power. Therefore, to accomplish the same objective, Afghanistan must industrialize. However, cultural factors and moral resisted the alteration to a new socio-economic environment and existence. Nevertheless, Tarzi assumed that the apparatus of modern culture were not the alike as culture itself. That is, to use the instruments developed in Europe does not mean that European culture must also enlarge in Afghanistan, primarily Amanullah to...

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