This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Modernization’s Effects On Gender Equality In China And India

1558 words - 6 pages

For the purpose of this essay, we will ascribe to a conception of “progress” that promotes equality in the realms of education, occupational opportunity, independence, geographic and marital freedom, property rights, and reproductive rights. This is not the place to attempt to prove this ideological conception as objectively correct—these standards are the author’s personal metric, and will serve as one of many lenses through which one might examine the subtle nature of gender roles across different cultures.
Throughout the 20th century, gender equality increased significantly in China and remained relatively stagnant in India. This discrepancy, however, is not due to a greater opportunity for demand politics from women in China. Rather, women’s empowerment in China was a mere vehicle for economic production, a progressive transformation for the sake Maoist goals. India, on the other hand, was more concerned with “peaceful change” than revolution, and its parliamentary system did not, in actuality, promote or allow demand politics. Hence, women’s social roles stagnated. In both countries, modernization occurred with little regard for women, and their rights were further ignored in the reform periods and throughout liberalization. In both countries, the progress that occurred for women was either exclusively economic or exclusively motivated by economic goals, which left them with no basis for unity or demand politics in any realm but labor.
In Nehru’s India, women were victims of a “passive revolution” that subtly advanced bourgeoisie men of higher castes under a guise of parliamentary democracy. Though women have presided over the Indian National Congress, served as a prime minister, and represent a large part of India’s labor force, they remain disadvantaged in a number of significant ways. As in China, they are subject to patrilocal exogamy, an alienating practice that devalues women to their families and communities because of their impending relocation. India also has an extremely low female to male ratio that has consistently declined on the national level throughout the 20th century. This decline is more apparent in the disadvantaged castes, which began the century with a relatively high female-to-male ratio. We can explain the decline by examining the influence of the norms of India’s different castes in light of modernization.
Many of the high ranking castes in India have a firmly established, longstanding patriarchy. Dreze and Sen note that “martial castes in north India have played a leading role in the history of female infanticide, child marriage, seclusion, dowry, sati, johar, levirate, polygamy, and related patriarchal practices.” (Dreze, Sen, 157) In the martial castes, the female to male ratio has remained low throughout the 20th century. Dreze and Sen posit that lower castes with increasing economic mobility have emulated the martial castes’ patriarchal norms, which explains the decline of the female to male ratio in...

Find Another Essay On Modernization’s Effects on Gender Equality in China and India

Gender Equality In Sports Essay

2142 words - 9 pages 25 years since the beginning of Title IX, there still is no gender equality among men and women in high school, college, and professional sports. Passed in 1972 by United States President Richard Nixon, Title IX was supposed to give women equality in sports, yet in the year 2001 there is still little difference in the way women are treated in sports. No legislative act has had a more powerful impact on the world of sports other than Title IX

Gender Equality and Communism Essay

2350 words - 9 pages contradiction between communist theory and practice concerning gender equality is evident in the films: Loves of a Blond, Man is Not a Bird, and Adoption. In her book entitled Women’s Equality, Work, and Family in the Czech Republic, Alena Heitlinger asserts, “ … Czechoslovakia adopted a Marxist-Leninist approach to women’s equality … based on Friedrich Engels’ hypothesis that the emancipation of women would result from the abolition of

British Imperialism in India and China

740 words - 3 pages British Imperialism in India and China Imperialism is the domination of a weaker country by a stronger country. For instance Britain dominated India and China in the mid 1880s to the beginning of the 20th century. Imperialism has had both a positive and negative effects on the countries involved. Britain was imperialistic for many reasons, it could dominate because it had the technology and power to do so. They also needed land to acquire

Gender Relations and Inequality in India

2320 words - 9 pages . The indigenous don’t have the proper equipment for their jobs either making them work as if they not practical. They aren’t given the right uniform to wear on dangerous sites such as construction sites. For their safety they should have proper hats, shoes and gloves. In a more narrow minded scope, India society is subject to miniscule amounts of gender inequality issues. Women are not given the status equal to men therefor making women suffer

Patriarchy in India, China, Greece and Rome

1165 words - 5 pages week; their main roles reproductive and domestic. Information about patriarchy in the classical era, though abundant, was, for the most part, written by men, therefore history does not give us an accurate depiction of women’s viewpoints. Four societies of the classical era, India, China, Greece, and Rome, adopted a patriarchal system, however, due to many factors, each developed identifiable characteristics. Because they did not have a

Core Consumers in India and China

874 words - 4 pages optimism that has helped to increase the number of credit cards in circulation in China and India. It is not strange to see Chinese secretaries making $800 a month buying $1,000 Gucci bags.” (Wood, 2012) The youthful shoppers, which are high end shoppers, are only part of the picture. There are still a lot of youth in smaller cities that don't have the money to spend on higher end products. So of course in these smaller cities the big brand name

Comparative Analysis: Buddhism In India And China

1500 words - 6 pages Comparative Analysis: Buddhism In India And China Buddhism is the non-theistic religion and philosophical system founded in North-East India in the sixth century by Gautama Siddharta (the Buddha). His followers seek to emulate his example of perfect morality, wisdom and compassion culminating in a transformation of consciousness known as enlightenment. Buddhism teaches that greed, hatred and delusion separate the individual from the true

Society Effects On Gender Roles In Malawi

947 words - 4 pages Society Effects On Gender Roles In Malawi Ivy Tech Vocational Collage The seventeenth and eighteenth century was a time of many struggles with many nations. Slave traders, immigrants and Christian missionaries where some of the troubles brought on by changes happening. While it was a time of change the Malawi people came together and formed this alliance of the Nyau . Mostly to form a resistance. Nyau

Gender Differences in India

1227 words - 5 pages they work during the pregnancy. All of these benefits will be provided if you are on government or high status job. My analyses for the Johnson and Connell are that patriarchal is getting eliminating from India. As the women are also working, they are leading men in every filed. They are well educated. The society needs to adopt the rules and regulations compared to the western societies. As the main policy framework for international gender

Gender Discrimination in India

1000 words - 4 pages Gender Discrimination in India In India, gender discrimination is the biggest issue and has been going on since ancient time because of the cultural and social differences. Gender is always separated by roles of social and cultural beliefs for men and women. They start separating gender since when the child is born in the family. There is a huge difference being a son or a daughter in the family. “Society celebrates during the son’s birth

India and China Overpopulation

1658 words - 7 pages cause malnutrition in large populations, poor air quality, and overuse of fossil fuels such as petroleum. Social issues that arise from having a superabundant population consist of overcrowding, limits on freedom, and an increased amount of uprising and conflict within the nation itself. China and India are the two most populated countries in the world. China has a population of 1.34 billion and India closely follows behind as the second most

Similar Essays

Title Ix’s Lasting Effects On Gender Equality In Federally Funded Sports Activities

1732 words - 7 pages , and since the 1970s has only slightly subsided. In the early 1970s it became apparent that legislation would be required to further the cause of athletic equality between men and women. In 1972, a series of Educational Amendments to the 1964 Civil Rights Act were passed. One of the most influential portions of this amendment still is Title IX. Title IX states: “No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from

Essay About The Negative Effects Of Colinization On India And China Using Specific Facts

1397 words - 6 pages growing food products to un-food products, famine and in China, economic corruption. Those effects took and will take years to fix, and heavily outweighing any benefits Asia may have gained.Europe's colonization of India and China had negative effects on local political systems, leading to corruption and disunion of the peoples and governments. The movement to remove British from power in India, the Indian National Congress (INC), was one of the

Women’s Struggles In Gender Equality And Workforce

1696 words - 7 pages Hoang PAGE \* MERGEFORMAT 1 Women's Struggles in Gender Equality and WorkforceOver the years, although there has been a significant increase in the number of women in the workforce, gender inequality has made it difficult for females to find well-paying unconventional jobs in the workforce. Overtime, women has increased their numbers significantly in the workforce. Coming from a Vietnamese and Chinese background in Vietnam, there were not very

Gender Equality In Islam And Christianity

1476 words - 6 pages them to gardens beneath which rivers flow as reward from Allah , and Allah has with Him the best reward" (3:195). The Quran also states that men and women are created from the same soul, have the same religious responsibilities, and both will receive like rewards on the day of judgment. In fact, Islamic law condemns oppression of any kind, including women. So despite the Quran’s clear support for women’s rights and equality, why do many people