Module 1 Biology Notes Essay

945 words - 4 pages

ľAn optical microscope enlarges the image of cells. This is called magnification. To show us small structures within cells, a microscope must be able to distinguish between objects that are close together. This is called resolution.ľOptical microscope passes light through a specimen to be viewed. Maximum magnification is about 1500 times and its limit of resolution is about 2umľElectron microscope uses beams of electrons. Its maximum magnification is about 500,000 times and its limit of resolution is about 1nm. A transmission electron microscope passes beams of electrons through a specimen to be viewed. A scanning electron microscope bounces beams of electrons off the surface of the specimen to be viewed.ľProkaryotic cells do not have nucleus. Only bacteria have prokaryotic cells. They are surrounded by a cell wall and a plasma membrane. Some are surrounded by a capsule. Ribosomes are the only organelles found in their cytoplasm.ľEukaryotic cells have a nucleus that is separated from the cytoplasm by a nuclear envelope. Organisms other then bacteria have eukaryotic cells. They are surrounded by a plasma membrane. Some are surrounded by a cell wall. Their cytoplasm contains a variety of organelles.ľEach organelle has a particular function.MITOCHONDRIA make ATPCHLOROPLASTS make CARBOHYDRATES in photosynthesising cellsRIBOSOMES make PROTEINSENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM forms CHANNELS through cytoplasm that helps to distribute substances quickly around cells.GOLGI APPARATUS found in some cells, STORES SUBSTANCES that cells have made before they are carried to the surface of the cell by small VESICLES.LYSOSOMES are vesicles that contain protein digesting enzymes.ľCells have at least one chromosome that controls its activities. Prokaryotic cells have a single, circular chromosome that is in their cytoplasm. Eukaryotic cells have several linear chromosomes that are found in the nucleus.ľCell organelles must be collected from cells before we can study their function. This is done by breaking cells into their components (cell fractionation) and then separating these components using a centrifuge (ultracentrifugation).ľThe fluid-mosaic model of a membrane structure shows that membranes have a phospholipids bilayer. This bilayer is studded with proteins and polysaccharidesľProteins in the plasma membrane perform a variety of functions. They act as cell receptors, as recognition sites and as adhesion sites. Proteins also assist the movement of molecules or ions through membranes.ľDiffusion is the net movement of molecules or ions down a concentration gradient. According to fick's law, diffusion across exchange surfaces is fastest when the exchange surface has a large area, the exchange surface is thin and the concentration gradient is steep.ľDiffusion is sometimes helped by specific proteins that form part of the structure...

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