This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Molecular Based Techniques Essay

2038 words - 9 pages

Although some infections are unique enough to be identified clinically, usually microbiologic laboratory methods are needed to identify the etiologic agent and diagnose microbial infection (Washington, J.A., 1996). Although we have made significant progress in our ability to diagnose and treat infectious diseases, they still remain a strong challenge to human survival, for example the disease Tuberculosis caused by a microbial infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis accounted for one third of the worlds bacterial infections in 2010 infecting a total of 8.8 million people worldwide (Dheda et al., 2010).
Diagnosis is important not only for prescribing effective drugs but for preventing the evolution of resistant microorganisms (Mori and Notomi, 2009). Traditionally, the microbiology laboratory identified etiologic agents of infectious disease by the direct examination and culture of clinical specimens. Methods of identifying and differentiating microorganisms responsible for microbial infection mainly relied on microbial morphology, staining properties of the organism and its growth variables. However, a major restriction is that >99% of the microorganisms observed through a microscope are not cultivable by these direct techniques (Rastogi and Sani, 2011).
Other disadvantages of these traditional methods include their lack of reproducibility and the difficulties they produce in typing as they are usually not sensitive enough for strain differentiation. These techniques are also restricted by the number of organisms present and the skill of the microbiologist in recognising different pathogens (Tang et al., 1997). Over the past few decades, the development and introduction of molecular-based techniques into the laboratory has resolved many of these issues and has revolutionised the diagnosis of microbial infection.
Nucleic Acid-Based Technologies (NAT)
Since the discovery that microbes were causative agents of numerous infectious diseases in the late 1800s there has been constant work into methodologies to try and detect these infectious agents. Infectious disease is transmissible between individuals and can be detrimental to human existence; because of this technologies used to monitor, prevent and treat these diseases are very important. Successful therapy towards these diseases is usually dependent on rapid detection of the causative agent. Rapid detection leads to faster, more accurate treatment and thus prevents disease progression. This is where molecular-based techniques have revolutionised the diagnosis and treatment of infectious disease. These molecular-based techniques have also revolutionised molecular epidemiology where the source of outbreak infection either in the community or in the hospital can be found and controlled (França et al., 2013). Molecular-based techniques used for microbial infection diagnosis are mainly nucleic acid-based technologies, these involve methods to isolate nucleic acids from...

Find Another Essay On Molecular-based techniques

Determination of Molecular Weight of a Protein by Gel Filtration

3339 words - 13 pages techniques is of crucial importance in order to successfully purify and conclude the molecular weight of an unknown sample using elution volumes of molecular weight standards. Gel filtration or exclusion chromatography is preformed to isolate proteins of different sizes between various phases, such as solid or gel and liquid phases. If solid, the gel and beads are denoted as sorbent. Sample mixtures have two phases that they move through, a

Molecular phylogenetics Essay

1822 words - 8 pages relationship between extant and extinct species (Millar, Huynen, Subramanian, Mohandesan & Lambert, 2008). Ancient DNA research has undergone major phases of development through improvements in DNA sequencing techniques, provided new insights and holds a great promising future in the field of molecular phylogenetics. The first ancient DNA study was performed in the year 1984, which involved the retrieval of small DNA sequences from the skin of a

Applying for a Master´s in Microbial Biotechnology

1087 words - 5 pages as my undergraduate majors. Over the last four years in IIT, I have developed a fascination for life sciences. Throughout my undergraduate study, I have taken up a rigorous curriculum and maintained a decent grade of 9.25/10 in my majors and stood among the top five students. Along with experimental and practical courses on basic biochemical and biophysical techniques and the relevant molecular genetic techniques, the fundamental courses on

A New, Modern Cookery – Molecular Gastronomy

711 words - 3 pages In the last twenty years, many new styles and approaches to cooking have developed very quickly. We have access to all kinds of foodstuffs everywhere in the world. From the beginning of civilization we have learned a variety of cooking styles and methods. Americans have used foods native to this land along with utensils and cooking techniques from other countries when they settled here. We have always been open to new ideas. Food is a common

Quantum Limited Particle Sensing in Optical Tweezers

691 words - 3 pages sensitivity than conventional particle sensing techniques in optical tweezers systems. This paper begins by formalizing an optimal parameter estimation procedure for particle sensing based on the analysis of the spatial properties of the field scattered by a particle in an optical tweezers. We show that split detection is non-optimal and consequently propose an optimal measurement scheme based on spatial homodyne detection. The efficacy of particle sensing is evaluated using the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and sensitivity measures; and the efficacy of spatial homodyne detection and split detection systems are compared.

Letter of Interest

728 words - 3 pages phenotyping (in field and glasshouse), genotyping and relevant techniques in molecular biology and genetics. Before this, I completed a Master of Applied Science (biotechnology) degree from The University of Western Sydney in 2004 which offered me knowledge and hands on experience in microbial fermentation technology. Plant tissue culture/biotechnology Tissue culture and experiments with transgenic plant is a routine exercise in the lab presently I am

Diverse Molecular Data Demonstrate That Commercially Available Medicinal Leaches are not Hirudo Medicinalis

850 words - 3 pages The main focus of this paper (Siddal et al. 2007) was to use various molecular techniques (discussed in detail later) as a means of identifying what Hirudo species are available commercially as medicinal leeches. While at least five species of medicinal leeches have been recognized, they are almost indistinguishable morphologically. Although historically there has been extensive use of leeches medicinally, only Hirudo medicinalis has been

analysis of proteomics

1089 words - 5 pages tissue. One is the multi-dimensional chromatography where the proteins are divided relating to the ionic attractiveness, molecular identity and size via ion exchange, molecular segregation, affinity and reverse-phase chromatography. Subsequently, these proteins or their products are introduced into Electrospray Ionization (ESI) which is a fraction based on mass spectrometry, distinguishing the molecular weight and the categorisations of the


2576 words - 10 pages technique can produce etching patterns on various substrates with resolution much smaller than 100 nm and that the method may provide a potential solution for high-density recording, such as producing patterned media. Nanoscale optical lithography techniques are already finding their way onto the commercial sector. Engineers at NanoOpto (Somerset, New Jersey), for example, are using wafer-based nanofabrication techniques to create what the

The Evolution of Gender Detection Protocols in Bioarchaeological Studies

2473 words - 10 pages sex determination kits were designed based on amelogenin genes amplification, especially useful in forensic casework. Sometimes these sex tests fail due to allelic dropout. New molecular markers for sex identification are constantly developed to overcome this problem. Another issue characteristic for ancient DNA studies is the contamination of samples with modern molecules of DNA. The accuracy of sex tests for ancient DNA studies depends on the

personalised medicine

1176 words - 5 pages -analytical techniques employed in phar-macogenomics research. The traditional paradigm based on the physiology of the disease that is the search for a drug on the basis of visible symptoms is slowly displaced by a new approach. The goal of this new approach is to study the molecular mechanisms of disease and to identify the genes respon-sible for its creation. This molecular analysis of the disease make possible to develop precise drug acting on a

Similar Essays

Molecular Cuisine Essay

652 words - 3 pages whether it is safe or not. Some of the “chemicals” that are used in molecular cuisine come from natural origins. The material origin in typically plant, animal, marine or microbial based. Although some of the chemicals used can be more harmful than others. So, molecular cuisine is safe, but in moderation. That means that someone would not want to be eating molecular cuisine for every meal all of the time. The chemicals that are used in molecular

Dermatophyte Fungi: Infections, Diagnosis And Treatment

967 words - 4 pages ), DNA microarray and other nucleic acid based techniques provide faster, easier, and confident species-level diagnostic approach which may lead to an effective treatment at early stage of dermatophytosis. Simple and standard molecular diagnostic methods make them easier to use in routine clinical diagnostic techniques with a high applicability and capability to represent reliable results with high level of sensitivity and specificity. Each

Food Or Science? Essay

2196 words - 9 pages Wylie Dufrane in New York, who have all created their own type of molecular cuisine using all types of innovative techniques based on the scientific processes that occur when cooking. Hundreds of new techniques that sound more like chemistry class instructions than actual recipes can be seen in molecular restaurants. The most popular one is spherification. This technique used to make round spheres of different sizes can be used with basically any

Dna: One Of The Biological Macromolecules That Contain Knots

1023 words - 5 pages article outlines the ideas and techniques of supra-molecular knot formation described in the article, “Metallo-supra-molecular self-assembly of a universal 3-ravel”, by Feng et. al, (2011). The report uses the twenty-component Fe8L12 supra-molecule to describe the techniques of branched knot formation through metallo-supra-molecular assembly.   DNA Knots and Polyhedrals in DNA Nanotechnology DNA is a double stranded polynucleotide. It contains