Molecular Characterization Of Dendrobium Nobile Lindl., An Endangered Medicinal Orchid Germplasm Based On Randomly Amplified Polymorphic Dna

1611 words - 7 pages

The primary focus of both evolutionary and conservation biology is to have the knowledge of population genetic structure and consequently define its causes and consequences. The major determinants causing genetic variability in plant species are historical aspects, human activity, narrow habitat preferences, natural selection and gene flow among populations, drift, founder effects, geographical distribution and biological properties of a given species (especially mating system) (Karron et al. 1988; Case 1993; Case 1994; CHUNG 1994). The importance of these above mentioned factors differs between species and populations. In rare plants, such as orchids, population size and the problem of isolation are often very important in shaping the genetic structure of populations. It has been reported that species which are more continuously distributed experience more gene flow than species with discrete, isolated populations leading to relatively lower variation among the populations (Hamrick and Godt 1989; Ellstrand and Elam 1993; Chung 1996). Moreover, geographically restricted species generally have lower levels of genetic variation within populations (Loveless and Hamrick 1984; Karron 1987; Hamrick and Godt 1989) although some of them possess relatively high level of genetic variation (Gitzendanner and Soltis 2000).
Dendrobium nobile Lindl., an epiphytic orchid has its distribution primarily in tropical and subtropical Asia (e.g. Northeast India, China, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines and Borneo) and North Australia usually growing at cooler climatic conditions at higher altitudes. Besides from horticultural significance, it has got a profound use in various herbal preparations. In Taiwan, its stem is used for treating night sweat, kidney disorder and to cure impotence. Chinese have been using it as a tonic and strengthening medicine for generations. The dried stems are used in the treatment of chronic fatigue, disorders related to restlessness, convalescence (Faria and Illg 1995) and are also used in promotion of body fluid production. This immense medicinal importance of D. nobile is primarily because of the bibenzyl compounds (Gigantol and Moscatilin) and one alkaloid (Dendrobine) (Suzuki et al. 1973; Faria and Illg 1995; Miyazawa et al. 1997; Zhao et al. 2001). Various active principles like 180-kDa 2-O-acetylgalactomannoglucan, SG-168 isolate and denbinobin isolated from stem extracts of D. nobile have been shown to have potential anti tumor activities (Wang et al. 2010; Yang et al. 2010; Yoon et al. 2011). Thus, immense ethnobotanical, ornamental and medicinal use of D. nobile, it has subjected it to severe anthropogenic pressure for centuries leading to the populations becoming threatened and endangered in natural habitats (Miyazawa et al. 1997; Yang et al. 2006). In order to design an effective conservation based utilization strategy for this endangered orchid species, therefore it is important to have a clear view about the availability and...

Find Another Essay On Molecular characterization of Dendrobium nobile Lindl., an endangered medicinal orchid germplasm based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA

Forming an Opinion of Others based on Wealth

595 words - 2 pages personality. Typically, 2 people will form an opinion of others within the first 3 seconds of meeting one another. The way these opinions are formed so quickly is, generally speaking, solely because of physical appearance. All too often, in our society today, people are criticized for what material possessions they have and how much money said people have to spend on things that they do not need, but instead just want. It does not matter where you go

Mrs.Mallard's Problem based on "The Story of An Hour"

521 words - 2 pages Mrs.Mallards problem is one which is deep rooted and emotional. She yearned for a more fulfilling life and the ability to appreciate the beautiful things which life had to offer. From "The Story of An Hour", the reader can conclude taht the life which Mrs.Mallard lived with her husband made her unhappy. It seems taht the life she wanted was very different, when compared to the life she lived with her husband. The fact that she was overwhelmed

An Experiment Based on Phtosynthesis

1369 words - 6 pages Photosynthesis Lab Report Kara Coates Dominique Massie April 8, 2014 Introduction: Photosynthesis is the use of sunlight to produce carbohydrates. In order to produce carbohydrates, photosynthesis converts the energy in sunlight to chemical energy in sugar bonds. Photosynthesis takes place in only the green parts of plants, which the green part are chlorophyll pigments. An example of this would be the leaves of a plant. In order

Medicinal Marijuana's Effect on the Treatment of Cancer and AIDS

1534 words - 6 pages alleviated, or at least eased, by a group of drugs called antiemetics. These drugs work to eliminate or reduce nausea and allow the patient to eat, or at least not vomit uncontrollably. The most commonly prescribed and currently the most effective of synthetic antiemetics is ondansetron (Zofran). This drug must be administered over a number of hours through an intravenous drip, where the patient must remain in a hospital bed. In addition to the

Chinook salmon are on the verge of being endangered???         Yes,

1371 words - 5 pages Chinook salmon are on the verge of being endangered??? Yes, Chinook salmon are endangered. Early in the semester we found out that the Chinook salmon were placed on the threatened endangered list because only 250 came back this last spring. Mr. Shumway's third period class went out to the streams to see if those streams could support salmon. We went to Berthusen Park, where Bertrand creek is; the other place we went to was Lynden City

An Analysis of the Epic Poem, Beowulf - Characterization of Beowulf

1995 words - 8 pages afterward anguish-days he shall suffer in sorrow while stands in place high on its hill that house unpeered!"   George Clark in “The Hero and the Theme” says that Beowulf is “wise and shrewd, brave, cheerful, humorous and ironic, sympathetic, an alert hearer and artful teller of tales” (271). He is the most round of the characters. The author uses the king’s messenger to further describe Beowulf and his men:   Messenger, I

An examination of the article "Cladistic analysis of languages: Indo-European classification based on lexicostatistical data"

1242 words - 5 pages be discovered.Works CitedDyen, I., Kruskal, J.B., Black, P., 1992. An Indoeuropean classification: a lexicostatistical experiment. Trans. Am. Philos. Soc. 82, 1-132.Freeman, S. and Herron, J. Evolutionary Analysis. (3rd Ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc., 2001.Rexova, K. Frynta, D. and Zrzavy, Jan. 2003. Cladistic analysis of languages: Indo-European classification based on lexicostatistical data. Cladistics. 19: 120-127.

A short characterization on a character named Darcourt in a short story. example of a characterization

516 words - 2 pages . Darcourt's multipersonalities are very much on the contrary.Darcourt admits to himself that he is an alcoholic or "boozer" and in realizing his problem he denies it with great pessimism: "Wouldn't the Cornish Foundation drive a saint to the bottle?"( Darcourt ). Another example of Darcourt's pessimism is when he is trying to decide whether to accept Schnak for the scholarship, "and as someone on whom large sums of money were to be risked she

An Investigation of Self-Descriptions Based on Data Collected From Two Participants of Differing Age

2786 words - 11 pages An Investigation of Self-Descriptions Based on Data Collected From Two Participants of Differing Age Abstract ======== This research paper investigates the self-descriptions of two participants in the light of the findings of Morris Rosenberg (1979). Rosenberg suggested that younger children usually describe themselves in physical conditions, and older children/adults have a tendency to use character and

Mindfulness and Decision Making: Analysis of a Popular Press Article Based on an Empirical

1072 words - 5 pages result in making "smarter" decisions. Bergland based this claim on a an empirical study conducted by Andrew Hafenbrack, Zoe Kinias, and Sigal Barsade, published in the peer-reviewed Journal of Psychological Science (2014). This article (Bergland, 2014) proposes that doing meditation prevents succumbing sunk cost bias, defined in the peer-reviewed article (Hafenbrack et al., 2014) as the propensity to continue and endeavor after money, time, or

An essay based on observations of teens in three different environments. Entitled: "Observations"

1401 words - 6 pages , the Student Council is compiled in a hierarchical system comparative to that of the Medieval Ages in Europe with the King or President at the head. Each level receives respect based on grade level. When any level attempts to reach beyond its own level, it can expect an abrupt reprimand. The one similarity that can tie all of these observations together is one simple factor: adult supervision. In the lobby whether or not an adult was present

Similar Essays

Characterization Of Odysseus Based On Book Six And Nine

426 words - 2 pages Odysseus is a hero that not only has physical skill, but also an intelligent brain as it comes out in the books six and nine of Homer’s Odyssey.Odysseus is shrewd, cautious, and extremely self-confident. He often introduces himself in a powerful and effective way. For example when in book nine, “I am Laërtês’ son, Odysseus. Men hold me formidable for guile in peace and war: this fame has gone abroad to the sky’s

Give An Account On The Molecular Structure Of Carbohydrates

574 words - 2 pages Give an account on the molecular structure of carbohydratesCarbohydrates contain the elements of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Examples of carbohydrates include sugars and starches. There are three main types based on size.MonosaccharidesMonosaccharides contain a single sugar molecule. The general formula is (CH2O)n, where 'n' equals the number of carbon atoms in the molecule. Different monosaccharides have different numbers of carbons. Trioses

The Science Of Manipulating Materials On An Atomic Or Molecular Scale

1671 words - 7 pages Nanotechnology, as described by Merriam-Webster Dictionary (2014) is, “ the science of manipulating materials on an atomic or molecular scale especially to build microscopic devices”. In recognizing the complexity associated with this definition, it is safe to say that many different achievements as well as controversies have come along with it. Although the category of nanotechnology is extremely broad the research attached to it is growing at

Genetic Diversity On Restoration Of Endangered Species

2456 words - 10 pages "How close is close enough?" There is no definite answer because not all variation is of adaptive significance. Beside, variation among populations is a continuous variable as two populations can vary by one or more alleles. If the motivation is an ethical commitment to fidelity to the historic distribution of genotypes, the line can be drawn anywhere. The best practice is to estimate and report the degree of genetic accuracy based on available