Molecular Genetics Essay

676 words - 3 pages

2. A human gene can be sequenced and cloned by using a bacterial plasmid. This process involves an isolated restriction enzyme (which recognizes a specific restriction site) cutting the desired gene from the human DNA for replication, forming a symmetric restriction site (with sticky ends). An isolated bacterial plasmid is cut with the same restriction enzyme, which will produce a restriction site on the plasmid that is complementary to the sticky ends of the cut gene form the human DNA. The cut human gene is then introduced into the sliced bacterial plasmid, and the complementary sticky ends “stick” together. This results in the plasmid becoming a recombinant DNA molecule which will then be returned to the bacterial cell. Then, the recombinant bacterium will reproduce this single cell through repeated cell divisions, resulting in the cloning of the human gene contained in this cell. This gene cloning procedure contributes to the understanding of genetics by allowing scientists to create genomic libraries to isolate, replicate, and become educated about different genes of an organism. For instance, genomic libraries are created by multiple genes being inserted and cloned in a bacterial plasmid, and then many of these recombinant plasmids are stored in a multiwell plate. This procedure has also contributed to the efficient production of human proteins that are needed by those who are deficient in them. For instance, insulin is mass produced in this way for humans with diabetes. Another contribution by this technological advancement is how scientists can amplify a particular genetic sequence by using the fast reproduction of the recombinant bacteria in order to create clones of the sequence inserted in the bacterial plasmid and cell for study or use.

The polymerase chain reaction produces a specific target sequence of DNA multiple times. This three cycle process involves the section of DNA containing the target sequence to be heated up to the point where the two DNA strands denature and separate at the hydrogen bonds between the nucleotide bases but not too...

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