Every parent claims that they will console their newborn with love and affection under any conditions. But inspite of what they may say, they are still worried. After all, there have been several situations with birth defects that have caused years of frusturation and difficulties. No parent wishes for their own child to be born with a genetic mutation, but even as this is true, several children are born with it. “Down syndrome, which is a genetic condition, occurs in one in every 691 births”(Laney 5). In total, there are presently about 10,130,246 people with Down Syndrome.This genetic mutation, which has been recognized for many years, has affected millions of lives. Being a congenital disorder, Down Syndrome is caused by an excess of the chromosome 21, and has many drastic effects for both the individual and his/her family.
Down Syndrome is caused by an excess of chromosome 21 in some or all cells. “This additional genetic material alters the course of development and causes the characteristics associated with Down syndrome”(Laney 7). Chromosomes are the type of structures which the genes are contained in. Normally, every person has 23 pairs of chromosomes. A chromosome is inherited by the parents, one from the father and one from the mother. After fertilization occurs an egg commonly contains 46 chromosomes. In some cases, though, their are mishaps before fertilization. “ A developing egg or sperm cell may divide incorrectly, sometimes causing an egg or sperm cell to have an extra chromosome number 21. When this cell joins with a normal egg or sperm cell, the resulting embryo has 47 chromosomes instead of 46”(ndss). When this manifests, a child is concieved with disformities, and intellectual affliction. The reason that this occurs repeatedly, is because of the way the chromosomes can divide so easily. This cause not only worries parents, it also effects the children with Down Syndrome.
One major effect with those who have Down Syndrome, are the health issues. Normally, an individual with Down Syndrome may obtain face defects, such as slanted eyes, small mouths, large tongues, and abnormally shaped ears. Slanted eyes(the epicanthic fold) can interefere with vision capability. Many with this defect will seek medication, or in more serious cases, surgery. These folds in the eyes are often associated with congenital abnormalty. When the nasal bridge has the inability to mature, vision difficulties often evolve. Another defect would be “abnormally shaped ears, which are commonly full of fluid, causing loss in hearing, and making it difficult to understand communication”(march of dimes). It is common for a child to deal with this issue without any changes. In some situations, though, surgery, or other types of medication are imperative. Additional health problems include large tongues, and small mouths. These deformities can constrain communication. This will then lead to comprehension hindrance for those around the individual....