Monetary and fiscal policy and their applications to the third world countries with a huge informal sector
This essay seeks to explain what are monetary and fiscal policy and their roles and contribution to the economy. This includes the role of the government in regulating the economical performance of a country. It also explains the different features and tools of monetary and fiscal policy and their performance when applied to the third world countries with a huge informal sector.
Monetary policy is the mechanism of a country’s monetary authority (usually the central bank) taking up measures to regulate the supply of money and the rates of interest. It involves controlling money in the economy to promote economic growth and stability by creating relatively stable prices and low unemployment. A monetary policy mainly deals with the supply of money, availability of money, cost of money and the rate of interest to attain a set of objectives aiming towards growth and stability of the economy. Here are some of the monetary policy tools:
Foreign currency requirement:
This is a monetary policy which involves the government’s intervention to curb disorderly trends in the foreign currencies level. In case the quantity of a local currency goes down, the central bank uses the foreign currencies to buy its currency from the foreign economies. This ensures that the economy has ample home currency and thus enough money in circulation.
It’s mandatory for all the banks to deposit a certain determined percentage of their assets with the central bank to make sure that the banks’ customer deposits are safe. These percentages are what the central bank adjusts to reduce or increase the banking lending rates, hence controlling the money in circulation (Federal Reserve Bank of Francisco 2011).
This is the use of open market operation system to change the monetary base. This involves buying or selling financial instruments like bonds in exchange of money to be deposited with the central bank. By selling the financial instruments, the central bank mops up the cash in circulation. On the other hand, selling injects money thus increasing the supply of money (Bernanke 2006).
By increasing or reducing the nominal interest rates, the money supply is either increased or reduced. When the rate goes up, people are not able to borrow, thus the money does not enter into circulation. But when the rates go down, people borrow in big numbers therefore increasing the money supply. So the monetary authority just needs to adjust the interest rates either upwards or downwards, and in-direct results will be reflected on the money on circulation.
Discount window lending
This is the situation where the commercial banks and other lending institutions borrow from the central bank at lower interest rates compared to how they will lend. This gives the institution a chance to vary credit conditions...