Mononucleus Bacteria Essay

1436 words - 6 pages

Good Essay noneBacteriaThe smallest living things on earth are the prokaryotic cells. Bacteria fall into the Monera Kingdom. They have a single DNA molecule in the cytoplasm. Almost all monerans have a cell wall that protects the cell and gives it its shape. Some monerans have a layer outside the cell wall called the capsule. This helps the cell cling to surfaces.A typical bacterium is about 2 micrometers long. Inside the cell, there are nucleic acids, enzymes, and other substances necessary to carry out the cells life process.Bacterium have long , thin, hairlike structures called flagella. They act as a propeller, as they rotate and move in response to chemical stimulation. Some have strands of pili , which enables them to stick itself to a surface.Some shell shapes important in classifying monera are: spherical cells, called cocci ; Rod shaped cells called bacilli, and spiral shaped cells called spirilli. There are over 16,000 species of monerans.Bacteria Showing Flagella Disease Causing BacteriaTwo main groups of bacteria exist: the saprophytes, which live on dead animal and vegetable matter; and the symbionts, which live on or in living animal or vegetable matter. Saprophytes are important because they decompose dead animals and plants into their constituting elements, making them available as food for plants. Symbiotic bacteria are a normal part of many human tissues, including the alimentary canal and the skin, where they may be essential to certain processes. Bacteria are involved in the spoilage of meat, wine, vegetables, and milk and other dairy products. Bacterial action may render such foods unpalatable by changing their composition. Bacterial growth in foods can also lead to food poisoning such as that caused by botulism. On the other hand, bacteria are of great importance in many industries. The fermentative capabilities of various species are used for the production of cheese, yogurt, pickles, and sauerkraut. Bacteria are also important in the production of tanned leather, tobacco, textiles and various enzymes, polysaccharides, and detergents.About 200 species of bacteria are pathogenic, or disease causing, for humans. Pathogenicity varies widely among various species and is dependent on both the harshness of the particular species and the condition of the host organism. The bacteria responsible for human disease are those that cause cholera, lockjaw, gas gangrene, leprosy, plague, bacillary dysentery, tuberculosis, syphilis, typhoid fever, diphtheria, undulant fever, and several forms of pneumonia. Until the discovery of viruses, bacteria were considered the causative agents of all infectious diseases.VirusesViruses are submicroscopic parasites that consist of either RNA or DNA, but never both. There is also a protective coat of protein or of protein combined with lipid or carbohydrate components. The nucleic acid is usually a single molecule, either singly or doubly stranded. Some viruses, however, may have nucleic acid that is...

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