Moral Philosophy of Global Peace
ABSTRACT: Global Peace is the summum bonum, so we must know its negative as well as positive meanings. Simultaneously peace must be understood in all its interrelated but theoretically differentiated dimensions as personal, social, national, international and global. Today, humankind is suffering from multidimensional crises such as terrorism, population-explosion, denial of human rights, economic inequality, racial discrimination, ideological extremism, religious intolerance, social injustice, ecological imbalance, consumerism, oppression of weak, etc. These peace-related issues compel us to lay down the fundamental principles of a radical global ethics that expects us to realize our roles and duties regarding global peace. It includes the role and ideals of educationalists, the duties of scientists, philosophers, and thinkers, the inculcation of human values such as nonviolence, love, etc.
"Since wars begin in the minds of men, it is in the minds
of men that the defences of peace must be constructed"
-Preamble to the Constitution of UNESCO
Global peace is the supreme ideal, or the Summum Bonum, so in order to know the exact meaning and real nature of peace as-well-as the ways to realise it, first of all, we have to rectify the prevailing tendency to think of peace only in negative terms as absence of bilateral war, since it encourages the pacifism, which does nothing, but denounce such war, while global overview confirms the presence of ethnic and civil war etc. Accordingly the negative definition of peace should also include the elimination of such wars. Sometimes peace as "Opposite of Violence" , as is done by Daisaku Ikeda. (1) Of course peace will be achieved by removing all kinds of violence such as war, environmental destruction, violation of human rights, cruelty against women and children, exploitation and oppression of weak, poor and illiterate etc. But peace is not merely a state of non-violence or absence of wars. Being a regulative goal of person, society mankind, it has positive aspect too, which should not be overlooked .
Peace must be understood in all its dimensions, theoretically differentiated as personal or mental peace i.e. the inner state of calm or tranquility, social peace i.e. the state of social justice and development. Peace at national level or national state of stability, progress and freedom from civil disorder. International peace or peace or peaceful relation among all nations, Global peace i.e. peaceful co-existence of all existent. Nevertheless practically " peace is indivisible and has to be global, if it has to be established on an enduring basis" (2) It must be global, because it is the foundation of the survival of mankind.
Mental peace reveals a state of unshakable quiet and composure, which is achieved through the inculcation of such creative virtues as friendliness, compassion, mercy, moderation, modesty, forgiveness, non-violence, love etc . Most of...