Morality. Rene Descartes, Thomas Hobbes And David Hume Were All After The Truth

565 words - 2 pages

COMPARACIÓN ENTRE RENÉ DESCARTES Y DAVID HUME. - Por un lado, Descartes es un autor perteneciente a la Modernidad (S. XVII), mientras
que Hume es un ilustrado (S. XVIII) y fue contemporáneo de Rousseau. - Por otro, Descartes era racionalista (como Spinoza y Leibniz). Es decir, para él, el
origen de todo conocimiento se debía la razón y las ideas innatas que ésta contiene. Sin embargo, Hume fue empirista (como Locke y Berkeley); a su entender el origen de conocimiento es la experiencia (pues nada hay en la razón que antes no estuviera en los sentidos).
- En tercer lugar, para Descartes el modelo de las ciencias eran las matemáticas (en concreto, la Geometría de Euclides) mientras que según Hume constituían tal arquetipo las ciencias naturales (en particular, la Física de Newton) y la ética.
- En cuarto lugar, Descartes propone como método científico el analítico-sintético (o hipotético deductivo), el cual supone que origen del conocimiento está en la mente y en sus operaciones. Sin embargo, Hume entendía que era inducción pues todo conocimiento verdadero debe partir de la experiencia y estar en correlación con ella (principio de correspondencia).
- En quinto lugar, para Descartes el conocimiento necesario y universalmente válido es innato, aparece en nuestra mente por Dios y, aparte de las ideas de las matemáticas, este conocimiento es el de las sustancias: Yo, Dios, Mundo (Spinoza radicalizó este aspecto, pues para él la única sustancia es real Dios - dado que sólo Él no necesita de ninguna otra cosa para existir). En cambio, Hume cree que las Relaciones de Ideas (las matemáticas) constituyen un conocimiento verdadero, pero que, sin embargo, la...

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