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Morphological Change Essay

2180 words - 9 pages

Morphological Development (Development of multicellular organism, characterization and change)
Morphological development starts with a single cell which able to divide or die. The cells are joined by springs and formed the morphological individuals. One of the studies had done in India to determine the morphological characterization of Echinococcus from food producing animals. Cystic echinoccosis is a common infecting in food producing animals. In this research 21,861 animals had been examined and found the highest prevalence of hydatid cysts (5.10 %) followed by buffaloes (3.81%), pig (0.87%) and sheep (0.075%). (Pednekar, 2009,
Schramm, 2011). Another article had study on morphological ...view middle of the document...

The last research had done by Yaron Fuchs, studied based on programed cell death (PCD) which has role in animal development and tissue homeostasis. In this research he stated in his article that “abnormal regulation of this process is associated with a wide variety of human diseases, including immunological and developmental disorders, neurodegeneration, and cancer.” Therefore, in this research he briefly overviewed of the field and reflects on the regulation, roles, and modes of PCD during animal development. During the observation defined a series of distinct morphological changes in cells dyed under physiological conditions. When cells die in response to overwhelming stress or injury, they swell and rupture in a process termed “necrosis”. (Yaron, 2011)
Morphological changes of organs
The current scientific experiment had analyzed the morphological change on organs. One of the experiments done by Meng Z, was to analyze the morphological changes in various organs from mice exposed by inhalation to sulfur dioxide. In this experiment scientist had form a view on SO2 can cause oxidative stress and DNA damage to multiple organs of mice. Sulfur dioxide is a common air pollutant which present in low concentration in the community air. (Meng)There was no direct proof on how morphological changes are caused by SO2. Therefore, in the scientific experiment ultrastructural morphologies of lungs, livers, spleens, testis, brain, hearts, and kidneys from mice had exposed by inhalation to SO2 at 28.00 +/- 1.98 and 56.00 +/- 3.11 mg/m3 been observed with electron microscopy. The results had showed that cells of lung in SO2 had shown pathological “changes including vacuolation of osmiophilic multilamellar bodies, a decrease in microvilli content and mitochondrial pyknosis or swelling, as well as various changes in the structure of the nucleus and chromatin.” Moreover, there were also changes in mitochondrial and nuclear compartments and type II alveolar cells had been observed. During the series of pathological changes, hepatic cells in SO2-exposure groups had been observed. They also observe increased breakage of mitochondria in Sertoli cells. Overall, the scientist had concluded that effects of inhaled sulfur dioxide on ultrastructural morphological changes of multiple organs and cells in mice. Moreover, the toxic effects of inhaled sulfur dioxide were not limited to the respiratory systems. The experiment had done by Yuko Yoshio, was analyzing the transforming growth factor-α (TGFα) that promotes the cell proliferation by binding the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), TGFα AND EGFR which have been reported in various human cancers(Yoshio, 2010). Based on this research there was no morphological change in the stromal components; however, “bladder weight was greater in TGFα TG mice than that in WT mice, and distended bladders were observed macroscopically in 19 of 20 TGFα TG mice over 20 weeks of age.” End of this experiment, scientist had concluded...

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