Every rational company tries to raise its profit by applying different type of strategies. For example, applying new technologies in order to decrease product or service cost, or developing new type of product by spending some of its profits on Research and Development. Looking from the Human Resource Management perspective companies can raise their profit by boosting employee motivation and achieving employee engagement. Considering that the motivation itself is intangible issue and can be looked and applied through various theories it was developed various theories and models related to motivational problems through the time. These theories and models varied time to time due the structural ...view middle of the document...
The amount of financial rewards was supposed to be determined by employees` productivity in fulfilling small tasks. This theory rules out role of physiological issues and expresses the idea that employees` do not like work and need to be closely controlled (Taylor, 2013). After 1920s his theory questioned a lot and new approach developed in employee motivation problem. In spite of shortcoming of Taylor`s theory, scientific management model attracted attention to employee motivation problem, secondly some parts of his employee motivation (elimination of waste, rationality, work ethics etc.) theory are still applicable in industrial management.
Maslow`s Needs Hierarchy Theory is one of the widely known employee motivation model. Abraham Maslow developed hierarchy of needs which is depicted as pyramid in 1940s. This model becomes quite well-known because of its different approach to employee motivation problem. Maslow searched motivational drivers in human phycology. He asserted that human needs and motivations are originated from his or her personal growth. Basically, as human evolves his needs and expectations as well as his motivation drivers evolves. From button to top needs hierarchy was depicted (McShene & Von Glinow, 2010):
• Physiological (the need for food, air, water, shelter)
• Safety ( the need for secure and stable environment without pain or illness)
• Belongingness (the need for love, affection, interaction with other)
• Esteem ( the need for self-esteem, accomplishing achievements, respect from others, recognition)
• Self – Actualisation (realization of one`s potential)
Maslow`s main contribution to human motivation problem is bringing more humanistic view to this issue. He did not assessed humans like machine, or some inhumanly system. He took into consideration humans` past experiences, social status play assertive role in human motivation.
It must be also bared in mind that all needs are not the same important for different people (in our case different persons). Maslow`s hierarchy theory possess limitations like Taylor`s theory. Particularly empirical studies show that overlap progress through hierarchy (McShene & Von Glinow, 2010). Unlike Maslow prediction some people value self-esteem or self-actualisation more than belongingness or safety. For example women prefer to get promoted in her career rather than achieving belongingness in her personal life. Such exceptions complicate to foresee the motivation level of certain employee in the middle and long-term. Because people`s motivational drivers are very changeable during relatively short time (a week, a month).
The two factors theory or Herzberg`s motivation hygiene theory assert that there certain motivational...