A review of literature reveals that in the past several decades, there is a number of concepts or models regarding the motivation of volunteers. As volunteers and placement students in Hilton Prague and Hilton Prague Old Town are similar in their nature, these concepts or models could also be applied to the motivation of placement students in Hilton hotels in Prague.
Two of the earlier on some of the most widely discussed theories on motivation were proposed by psychologists Abraham Maslow and Frederick Herzberg. Maslow introduced his Hierarchy of needs in 1943 and later fully developed it in 1954. This model consists of 5 levels of basic needs, often portrayed in a pyramid or triangular ...view middle of the document...
Many researchers then indicated that altruism is the main motivator for volunteerism (Tapp & Spanier 1973, Howarth 1976) and this theory is still widely discussed in present days (Horton-Smith 1981, Burns, Reid, Toncar, Fawcett & Anderson 2006, Carpenter & Myers 2007).
In 1978, Gidron came up with three different motives for volunteering: personal (self-fulfilment), social (creating interpersonal relations) and indirectly economic (gaining work experience). This concept was developed on the basis of Herzberg´s Two-factor theory (1966) which was introduced above.
In the 1980´s, various authors were examining the volunteer motivations (Francies 1983, Henderson 1984, Chapman 1985, Daniels 1985, Grieshop 1985, Miller 1985, Rubin & Thorelli 1985) and these studies were mainly centred around the two or three factor model (Esmond & Dunlop 2004).
The two-factor model was established by Horton-Smith (1981) and he stated that motives for volunteer motivation can be either altruistic or egoistic. Altruistic motives can be interpreted as intangible rewards such as helping others whereas egoistic motives are usually tangible rewards (Horton-Smith 1981). This model was later seconded by Frisch & Gerrard (1981) and Gillespie & King (1985) based on two separate studies of Red Cross volunteers.
In the 1980´s several authors (McCurley & Vineyard 1988, Wilson 1983) began to discuss volunteer motivation in their work. They were mainly using well-known concepts such as Maslow´s Hierarchy of Needs (1943) and Herzberg´s Two-factor theory (1966). Some authors implemented in their work three-factor model rather than two-factor model (Fitch 1987, Morrow-Howell & Mui 1989). The most attention received the three-factor model of McClelland, Atkinson & Lowell (1953) which describes the motives of volunteers as the need for achievement, need for power and need for affiliation. These three needs of volunteers were also examined later by McCurley & Lynch (1994) and Vineyard (1991).
In the 1990´s two additional motivational models were developed. The unidimensional model was introduced by Cnaan and Goldberg-Glen (1991) and they explained that volunteers have both altruistic and egoistic motives for volunteering and that volunteers do not act based on just one of these two types of...